Posts Tagged ‘potato’

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This report presents the conclusions and recommendations from the ‘Sensitizing workshop on Tuta absoluta: An impending threat to tomato production”, held in Lalitpur on March 13. Purpose of this workshop was to educate stakeholders regarding the impending threat of Tuta absoluta and the importance of monitoring to prevent its invasion and spread.
Tomato is the most important vegetable crop in Nepal. The tomato leafminer, a native of South America, was accidentally introduced in to Spain in 2006. Since then it has invaded to other European, North African, and Mediterranean countries. Now that it has just been reported in India, there are no natural barriers to its spread into Nepal. It is a devastating pest of tomato, and if no control measures are taken, it will likely cause up to 80-100% yield losses. The exceptional speed and extent to which it has invaded several countries in Europe, Asia and North Africa leads us to believe that it will soon invade Nepal. Tomato is the preferred host even though it can develop on other solanaceous host plants such as eggplant, potato, pepper, tobacco, nightshade, and Jimson weed.
The workshop was hosted by the International Development Enterprises (iDE Nepal) funded through the Feed the Future Integrated Pest Management Innovation Lab. The program was chaired by Dr. Min Nath Poudyal, Planning Director, Nepal Agriculture Research Council (NARC). Forty seven participants attended, including major scientists and experts from different organizations e.g. DoA, NARC, University professors, private companies, USAID representative and other related stakeholders. The list of workshop participants is attached in the Annex. Dr. Muni Muniappan gave a key note speech on Tuta absoluta- its biology, plants affected by it, its geographical distribution, and its economic impact; monitoring and control methods; and the detection, and management of recent outbreaks.


Tuta absoluta

Link to the Tuta absoluta workshop flyer: http://www.oired.vt.edu/ipmil/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Report-Tuta-absoluta-Workshop.pdf

Reported by: SULAV PAUDEL | IPM Program Coordinator | iDE Nepal
PO Box: 2674, Kathmandu, Nepal
Office: 00977-01-5520943 (Ext: 207) Cell: 9857011122
spaudel@idenepal.org | sulavpaudel111@gmail.com

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A ProMED-mail post    <http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases <http://www.isid.org>

Date: September 2014

Source: European Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO) Reporting Service 9/2014/164 [edited] <http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/2014/Rse-1409.pdf>


A systematic survey for the presence of potato cyst nematodes (_Globodera rostochiensis_ and _G. pallida_ — both EPPO A2 List) was initiated in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2011. Until 2012, only _G. rostochiensis_ had been detected in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

In autumn 2012, viable cysts were found in 2 soil samples originating from 1 field located 70 km [about 43 miles] east of Sarajevo.

Morphological and molecular analysis confirmed the occurrence of _G. pallida_ in these samples. More samples were collected from the other fields of the grower concerned, as well as from their surroundings, but no cysts were found in these additional samples.

A more intensive sampling regime was implemented in the infested field (1.1 ha [2.7 acres]) and revealed a high infestation of 1 cyst per gram of soil in the infestation focus. The high infestation level and the use of farm-saved seed potatoes by the grower suggest that the introduction of _G. pallida_ probably took place several years before via imports of infected seed potatoes.

Phytosanitary measures were taken on the infested field (prohibition to grow potatoes for the next 6 years, continuing sampling).

communicated by: ProMED-mail <promed@promedmail.org>

[Both golden (_Globodera rostochiensis_, with at least 5 races) and pale (_G. pallida_) potato cyst nematodes (PCNs) cause serious crop losses in potato. Other solanaceous crops (such as tomato) and weeds may serve as pathogen reservoirs. PCN symptoms on potato include stunting, yellowing, and wilting of leaves as well as a reduced root system. PCNs may lead to complete crop failure. Diseased plants first occur in isolated patches and these become larger with each new crop.

The nematodes can survive in soil for up to 20 years as cysts. Spread occurs via infected soil, water, wind, or on plant material (such as the seed potatoes suspected above). Disease management includes exclusion, long crop rotation with non-host species, use of crop cultivars resistant to specific PCN races and nematicides. These control measures can be combined to keep nematode levels below economic thresholds. Both PCNs have been included on the quarantine lists of the European Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO).

In the Eurasian area, golden PCN is widespread but pale PCN has a more restricted distribution and its detection in specific areas is considered of significance to the respective region. It would be important to ascertain the original source of the infection in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as that location would also require appropriate measures to improve the health of local solanaceous crops.


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Fresh Plaza

University of Florida:
Scientist finding could help farmers stop ‘late blight’ in potato, tomato

A University of Florida scientist has pinpointed Mexico as the origin of the pathogen that caused the 1840s Irish Potato Famine, a finding that may help researchers solve the $6 billion-a-year disease that continues to evolve and torment potato and tomato growers around the world.

A disease called “late blight” killed most of Ireland’s potatoes, while today it costs Florida tomato farmers millions each year in lost yield, unmarketable crop and control expenses.

For more than a century, scientists thought the pathogen that caused late blight originated in Mexico. But a 2007 study contradicted earlier findings, concluding it came from the South American Andes.

UF plant pathology assistant professor Erica Goss wanted to clear up the confusion and after analysing sequenced genes from four strains of the pathogen, found ancestral relationships among them that point to Mexico as the origin.

“The pathogen is very good at overcoming our management strategies,” said Goss, a UF Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences faculty member. “To come up with better solutions to late blight, we need to understand the genetic changes that allow it to become more aggressive. By understanding past changes, we can design new strategies that are more likely to be robust to future genetic changes.”


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Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom
March 25, 2014



Blackleg-affected potato plants (c) James Hutton Institute

Researchers at the James Hutton Institute and partner organisations are working to understand how seed potato becomes infected with Pectobacterium atrosepticum, the pathogen that causes blackleg; a disease that has been one of the most significant worries for potato growers across Europe in the past 10 years.

Speaking at the Scottish Society for Crop Research (SSCR) Potato Winter Meeting about a recently commissioned project that aims to identify how and when early field generations become infected, Professor Ian Toth, Controlling Weeds, Pests and Diseases research theme leader at the James Hutton Institute said:

“Although Scottish seed potato production remains free from the blackleg causing pathogen Dickeya solani, which is causing major problems in mainland Europe, we can’t afford to be complacent about the related pathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum which also causes blackleg. This pathogen is present across Europe, including Scotland, and has been particularly troublesome over the last few years.”

Professor Toth argued that the increase in blackleg has coincided with, but may not be caused by, a series of very wet growing seasons, the removal of sulphuric acid as a means of haulm destruction and increasing consolidation within the industry, resulting in fewer but bigger businesses growing a wider range of cultivars.

“It is clear from growing crop inspection returns that blackleg is strongly influenced by disease incidence in the preceding seed crop,” he continued. “It is therefore concerning that blackleg can be found in pre-basic crops as early as the second field-grown generation. More so when considering that disease incidence, in general, will rise steeply to a plateau in subsequent generations once initial infection has occurred.”

The new £300,000 three-year project to investigate blackleg is funded by the Potato Council and Scottish Government.

Also at the meeting, which took place at the James Hutton Institute in Dundee on 24 March, speakers from the James Hutton Institute and SASA (Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture) touched on subjects related to breeding of new potato varieties, as well as pests and diseases that affect the crop.

Dr Csaba Hornyik discussed work leading towards the identification of genes for tuber shape formation and eye depth development; while Dr Ankush Prashar and Dr Alison Bennett analysed the influence of drought and mycorrhizal fungi in cultivated potato. Dr Andy Vinten examined the performance of sediment fences for erosion control, and the potential of the grain aphid as a new vector threat to potato crops was reviewed by Dr Brian Fenton and Gaynor Malloch.

A presentation was made by Vanessa Young (Mylnefield Research Services) on molecular marker development and its application to potato breeding programmes. This work is a collaboration between MRS and the James Hutton Institute’s Potato Genetics group, and involves work by Karen McLean, Finlay Dale, Csaba Hornyik, Ankush Prashar and Glenn Bryan.

On behalf of SASA, Dr Gerry Sadler spoke about the Scottish and UK approaches to controlling potato blackleg, and Dr John Kerr explained the new EU seed potato classification scheme and potential options for its implementation in Scotland.

The Scottish Society for Crop Research supports knowledge exchange between science and industry through field events and meetings, science-based publications and research on topics of particular relevance to industry. It is run by a Committee of Management and its activities delivered through sub-committees on soft fruit, potato and combinable crops. See sscr.hutton.ac.uk for further information.


More news from: James Hutton Institute

Website: http://www.hutton.ac.uk

Published: April 4, 2014


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