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New research maps potential global spread of devastating papaya mealybug pest

by CABI

New research maps potential global spread of devastating papaya mealybug pest
Credit: CABI

CABI scientists have mapped the potential global spread of the devastating papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus), highlighting new areas in Africa, Asia and the Americas into which this pest could potentially invade.https://acc5e9c37d7b810ac61700bc528d240c.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-37/html/container.html

The papaya mealybug, which is native to Mexico and Central America, can have severe impacts upon livelihoods and food security. In Ghana, for example, infestations led to a 65% yield loss which reduced export earnings and resulted in the loss of 1,700 jobs.

Using location data received through collaborations with Kerala Agricultural University, India; the National Rice Research Institute, India; the Bangladesh Agricultural University; University of Queensland, Australia; the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA); Fujan Agriculture and Forestry University in China and CSIRO, researchers were able to model the potential distribution of this pest, taking into account environmental conditions, and the distribution of suitable host crops and irrigation patterns.

The researchers, led by CABI’s Dr. Elizabeth Finch, believe the polyphagous insect pest, which affects over 200 plants including economically important crops such as papaya, cassava and avocado, could spread to areas such as the south of the Democratic Republic of Congo, northern Cameroon, Zambia, Madagascar and western Ethiopia which are environmentally suitable and have suitable crop hosts.

In the Americas, the research, published in the journal Pest Management Science, suggests papaya mealybug could extend into El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama—although the scientists believe it could already be in these locations but its presence is yet to be confirmed.

Whilst papaya mealybug is already present in Florida, where it is under successful control as a result of the release of endoparasitoid wasp species—Acerophagus papayae, Anagyrus loecki, Anagyrus californicus—suitable conditions for this pest are also present in the southern tip of Texas.

Conditions are likely to be too cold in the rest of the USA for permanent papaya mealybug populations, however the research showed that seasonal populations could survive in California, along the Pacific coastline and in the central and eastern states of the USA during the warmer summer months.

In Asia, the areas with suitable conditions were more expansive than the areas with known populations of papaya mealybug, suggesting the potential for further expansion of papaya mealybug specifically in India, Southeast Asia and the southern regions of the Guangxi and Guangdong provinces of southern China.

However, in Australasia the risk is low as only a small amount of fragmented land along the north-eastern side of Queensland, from the very northern tip of Queensland to Bundaberg, is climatically suitable. This is due to heat stress from the high temperatures on the continent.

Similarly, in Europe—though due to cold rather than heat stress—widespread distribution of papaya mealybug is not expected, with only a very small area of land surrounding Seville in Spain and around Sicily in Italy having suitable conditions for resident populations.

Dr. Finch said, “This pest has been so successful due to its quick development and prolific reproductive capacity. It has the potential to spread to new areas and rapidly reach high numbers unless suitable phytosanitary or control methods are implemented.

“Information about the papaya mealybug’s potential distribution is important as it can highlight key areas susceptible to invasion, giving an early warning to decision makers, allowing them to put into place phytosanitary measures to prevent or slow the invasion of the pest into their jurisdiction.”

Dr. Finch added, “In areas where the papaya mealybug has become established and reached a high enough population density, the use of parasitoids—such as Acerophagus papayae and Anagyrus loecki—remains an effective potential control method.

“Further ecological niche modeling of these parasitoid species is recommended to anticipate their survival, fitness and ultimate biological control impact in areas into which papaya mealybug could potentially expand and become established.”


Explore further Virginia Tech-led pest-control plan saves up to $309 million for Indian farmers, consumers

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IPM INNOVATION LAB

Feed the Future Lab for Integrated Pest Management

 

 

 

IPM Innovation Lab Call for Concept Notes
Call for Concept Notes:
1. IPM for exportable fruit crops in Vietnam
The USAID Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Integrated Pest Management at Virginia Tech invites the submission of concept notes from U.S. universities, CGIAR institutions, and host country institutions to compete to lead the IPM for Exportable Fruit Crops in Vietnam. Concept notes will be reviewed and may lead to an invitation to submit a full proposal.
U.S. universities as defined under Section 296(d) of Title XII of the Foreign Assistance Act, CGIAR, and host country institutions are eligible to apply as the lead institution for a period of 4.5 years. Total funding (single award) is $0.8 million. Collaboration or partnerships with relevant and appropriate host country organizations, other universities, the CGIAR system, and/or development community partners is required.
Concept notes for IPM for exportable fruit Crops in Vietnam are due January 30, 2015. For complete information see: http://goo.gl/oJ2kuv

2. Biological control of the invasive weed Parthenium hysterophorus in East Africa
The USAID Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Integrated Pest Management at Virginia Tech invites the submission of concept notes from U.S. universities, CGIAR institutions, and host country institutions to compete to lead the Biological control of the invasive weed Parthenium hysterophorus in East Africa. Concept notes will be reviewed and may lead to an invitation to submit a full proposal.
U.S. universities as defined under Section 296(d) of Title XII of the Foreign Assistance Act, CGIAR, and host country institutions are eligible to apply as the lead institution for a period of 4.5 years. Total funding (single award) is $0.75 million. Collaboration or partnerships with relevant and appropriate host country organizations, other universities, the CGIAR system, and/or development community partners is required.
Concept notes for Biological control of the invasive weed Parthenium hysterophorus in East Africa are due January 30, 2015.

For complete information see: http://goo.gl/oJ2kuv
The Virginia Tech IPM Innovation Lab is funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development under cooperative agreement AID-OOA-L-15-00001.
Copyright © 2014 Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Collaborative Research on Integrated Pest Management, All rights reserved.

Our mailing address is:
Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Collaborative Research on Integrated Pest Management
Office of International Research, education, and Development (OIRED)
526 Prices Fork Rd (0378)
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Book Review: Rice Pests of Bangladesh- Their Ecology and Management
Authors: Zahirul Islam and David Catling

The University Press Limited
Red Crescent House, 6th Floor
61 Montijheel C/A
GPO Box 2611, Dhaka 1000
Bangladesh
Website: http://www.uplbooks.com.bdo
e-mail: upl@bangla.net

2012, 422 pages
ISBN: 978 984 506 048 6
2003, 512 pages
Price: Tk. 1600.00
Hard cover

Rice Pests of Bangladesh provides a comprehensive coverage of all of the abiotic constraints to rice production in the field and of pests in storage. The quality of this publication is enhanced by the fact that it brings together the accumulated data and experience of the two authors over the last 30 years. The 14 chapters and 422 pages cover all aspects of rice pest management including pests, yield loss, major control strategies and rice IPM.

Chapter 1 is entitled “Bangladesh and Rice.” Chapter 2 discusses the concepts of rice growth and pest status. Chapters 3-7 cover the early vegetative insect pests, general defoliators, stem borers, sap feeders and minor invertebrate pests. Chapter 8 discusses the vertebrate pests; rodents and birds. Chapter 9 provides a comprehensive coverage of the rice diseases; fungal, viral, bacterial and nematodes. The major weed species, their ecology severity and management are covered in Chapter 10. Chapter 11 explains the concepts of yield loss including mechanisms, plant compensation and yield loss assessment methods. Pests of rice in storage including insects, fungi and rodents are explained in Chaptger 12. Provides a detailed coverage of the major control strategies including cultural control, plant resistance, biological control and chemical control and pesticides. Chapter 14 covers the IPM of rice pests; concepts, principles, current management systems and new concepts for IPM in Bangladesh rice production.

This profusely illustrated book with an underlying IPM and ecological approach takes a fresh look at yield losses from insects and diseases and contains a wealth of information for rice plant protection specialists. It is specifically targeted to students, teachers, researchers, extension officers and agricultural development workers. The value of this book is enhanced as the information therein is not only relevant to Bangladesh but also applies to the Indian states of West Bengal, Assam and Bihar.

Prof. E. A. “Short” Heinrichs
Associate Director Emeritus
University of Nebraska
Lincoln, NE 68583-0748 USA

Research Professor, UNL Department of Entomology
Secretary General, International Association for the Plant Protection Sciences (IAPPS)
Email: eheinrichs2@unl.edu

 

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