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Website: http://www.ippc2019.icrisat.org

IPPC 2019 HYDERABAD POSTCARD

The XIX International Plant Protection Congress will focus on crop protection technologies to mitigate the effects of climate change for food security and environment conservation. On behalf of the International Association for the Plant Protection Sciences (IAPPS), ICRISAT and the Crop Protection Societies in India, the organizers are pleased to invite you to participate in IPPC2019. The program of IPPC2019 is aimed at addressing many of the key issues in crop protection being faced by the farmers to meet the challenge of food security through sustainable crop protection and conservation of the environment. We welcome your participation in this event in the historic city of Hyderabad to discuss all aspects of plant protection to mitigate the effects of global warming and climate change. We request you all to come forward, and organize a symposium or a workshop, and participate in the proceedings of the IPPC2019.

Thematic Areas

Climate change: The emerging challenge
Host plant resistance: Biochemical and molecular mechanisms
Plant protection to mitigate effects of climate change
Climate change and biodiversity
Invasive and emerging pests

Insects Vertebrates
Pathogens Weeds
Nematodes Viruses

Pest – host plant – environment interactions.

Host plant resistance in IPM
Breeding for pest resistance
Gene mapping and cloning
Transgenics for pest control
MAS for pest resistance
Metabolomics
Detection and diagnosis
Pest and pesticide management
Insect pests
Pathogens
Nematodes
Viruses
Plant quarantine and trade

Ecological engineering
Biodiversity and bio-systematics
Semio-chemicals in pest management
Decision support system
Remote sensing and modelling for pest forecasting
Biological control
Vectors of plant diseases

Biosafety of IPM technologies to the environment
Crop protection and food security
Pesticides
Bio-pesticides
Natural plant products
Natural enemies
Transgenic crops
Overcoming hunger
Reducing poverty
Access to markets
Attracting youth to crop protection sciences
plant protection
Science networks
Education and extension services
Technology transfer
Governmental policies: Production, marketing and application

The IPPC brings together plant protection science and practice from around the world every 4 years. The IPPC is broadly multidisciplinary with an emphasis on an integrated approach to plant protection. Thus, for 50+ years the IPPC has provided a forum for plant protection specialists comprising of plant pathologists, entomologists, weed scientists, nematologists, chemists and legal advisers to communicate and discuss important problems and new discoveries related to crop losses due to pests and their management. The integration of these disciplines will be reflected in the program.

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Environmentally Friendly Insect Repellent for Agriculture

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A team of researchers from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have developed a biodegradable agent that repels insect pest activity amongst crops without the use of insecticide chemicals.

The use of synthetically produced insecticides in large quantities has been shown to negatively impact on local insect biodiversity and environmental health (e.g. soil and water quality). One such controversial impact which has become an ever increasing threat is that of bee population numbers being reduced due to insecticide use.

Professor Thomas Bruck, Chair of Synthetic Biotechnology at TU Munich and his team have now found an alternative. The insect repellent they have developed has been shown to be ecologically harmless and biodegradable. Being sprayed on crops, the repellent works similar to mosquito repellent, a chemical is released into the air which reduces insect presence.

“With our approach, we are opening the door to a fundamental change in crop production,” says Bruck. “Instead of spraying poison, which inevitably also endangers useful species, we deliberately merely aggravate the pests.”

The research team were inspired by the tobacco plant, which produces a molecule known as cembratrienol (CBTol) on its leaves that protects the plant from insects. Using synthetic biotechnology tools, the team were able to isolate the tobacco genome which is responsible for the production of CBTol and inserted this into the genome of bacteria. Using wheat bran, a widely available by-product from grain mills to feed bacterial, the genetically modified bacteria then self-produce the CBtol molecule.

Initial investigations showed that CBTol spray is non-toxic to insects and other species, yet it is a potent repellent. The fact that this product is biodegradable also results in a greatly reduced accumulation of chemicals in the local environment. This spray has also been shown to contain antibacterial properties, therefore being able to be used as a disinfectant spray that acts specifically against MRSA, pneumonia and listeriosis pathogens.

If you would like further information on this subject, please see the links below:

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Bats vs moths

Science

Watch how battles with bats give moths their flashy tails

Bats and their prey are in a constant arms race. Whereas the winged mammals home in on insects with frighteningly accurate sonar, some of their prey—such as the tiger moth—fight back with sonar clicks and even jamming signals. Now, in a series of bat-moth skirmishes (above), scientists have shown how other moths create an “acoustic illusion,” with long wing-tails that fool bats into striking the wrong place. The finding helps explain why some moths have such showy tails, and it may also provide inspiration for drones of the future.

Moth tails vary from species to species: Some have big lobes at the bottom of the hindwing instead of a distinctive tail; others have just a short protrusion. Still others have long tails that are thin strands with twisted cuplike ends. In 2015, sensory ecologist Jesse Barber of Boise State University in Idaho and colleagues discovered that some silk moths use their tails to confuse bat predators. Now, graduate student Juliette Rubin has shown just what makes the tails such effective deterrents.

Working with three species of silk moths—luna, African moon, and polyphemus—Rubin shortened or cut off some of their hindwings and glued longer or differently shaped tails to others. She then tied the moths to a string hanging from the top of a large cage and released a big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) inside. She used high-speed cameras and microphones to record the ensuing fight.

Moths with no tails (such as polyphemus) were easy quarry for the bats, escaping only about 27% of the time, Rubin, Barber, and colleagues report today in Science Advances. But when Rubin enlarged the polyphemus hindwing lobe, twice as many escaped the bat’s sonar, or echolocation system.

Bats going after long-tailed African moon moths got a mouthful of tail 75% of the time as the moths flitted away. Shorten the tail, and the African moon moths escaped only 45% of the time. With no tail at all, that percentage dropped to 34%. When Rubin’s colleagues Chris Hamilton and Akito Kawahara at the Florida Museum of Natural History in Gainesville built a family tree of silk moths and their relatives, they realized that long tails had evolved independently several times. That’s further evidence that they are an important life-saving feature for these moths.

“The authors have demonstrated a powerful approach for understanding the diversity of moth shapes,” says Aaron Corcoran, an animal ecologist at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, who was not involved with the work. “There appear to be many different ways to trick a bat’s echolocation system.” The study also revealed how hard it was for bats to work around this deception, he adds. “The fact that the bats in the study never learned how to catch these moths, despite ample time to do so, shows how hard-wired this blind spot is in the bat’s perception.”

The findings could benefit other fields such as robotics, says Martin How, a sensory ecologist at the University of Bristol in the United Kingdom. Because the study examined the bat-moth dogfights at such a fine scale, the results could help engineers design the “bio-inspired technologies of the future,” he says, including deftly flying drones.

*Correction, 5 July, 1:45 p.m.: This article has been updated to reflect that although Juliette Rubin was the lead author of the paper, some of the work was done by other researchers.

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‘Push-pull’ crop system to curb fall armyworms

Report

from EastAfrican

Published on 13 Feb 2018 View Original

In Summary
– Intercropping maize with drought-resistant greenleaf desmodium and planting Brachiaria grass on the farm’s edge helps curb fall armyworms.

Researchers have found intercropping maize with drought-resistant greenleaf desmodium and planting Brachiaria grass on the farm’s edge helps curb fall armyworms.

Desmodium and Brachiaria grass are high quality animal fodder plants.

The leguminous greenleaf desmodium becomes repellent, emitting a blend of compounds that help push armyworms away from maize while Brachiaria Mulato II grass around field edge produces chemicals attractive to the pests.

The International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (Icipe) said that the “push-pull” crop system also promotes soil fertility and hinders the striga weed from attaching roots of cereal crops.

Icipe together with Rothamsted Research of Britain studied 250 maize farms that have adopted the push-pull method in western Kenya, eastern Uganda and northern Tanzania and found that the climate-adapted push-pull technology controls fall armyworm in smallholder farming systems in East Africa.

The method was initially developed for control of cereal stem borers and striga weed.

The scientists studied Kenya’s Bungoma, Busia, Siaya, Vihiga, Migori and Homa Bay sub Counties, Tarime district in Tanzania, Uganda’s Iganga, Bugiri ,Tororo and Bukedea districts.

Data on number of fall armyworm larvae on maize, percentage of maize plants damaged by larvae and grain yields was collected. Each farmer had a set of two plots, a climate-adapted push–pull and a maize monocrop.

There was 82.7 per cent reduction in number of fall armyworm larvae per plant and 86.7 per cent drop in plant damage per plot with push-pull systems. Grain yields were significantly higher, 2.7 times in systems plots.

“The farmers in the push-pull project reported that their fields were free of fall armyworm infestation while neighbouring monocrop plots were being ravaged by the pest,” said ICIPE’s Pull-Push Leader Prof Zeyaur Khan.

Endure

Welcome to the 27th edition of ENDURE News, the electronic newsletter from ENDURE. Please feel free to share this newsletter with colleagues.

  • ‘Inspiring’ Agroecological Crop Protection course
    Some 26 participants from 10 countries, including PhD students as well as postdocs, junior and senior researchers working in Africa, Asia, South America, Central America and Europe, attended ENDURE’s international training course on Agroecological Crop Protection (ACP) which ran from February 12 to 16, 2018.
  • ACP course sparks South-East Asian ‘twin’
    Drawing inspiration from ENDURE’s Agroecological Crop Protection (ACP) international training course held in Volterra, Italy (see story above), a ‘Twin Scientist School’ was staged in Can Tho, Vietnam, in March, providing the opportunity for 23 participants to learn more about the ACP approach, which is seen as providing important benefits for crop protection in South-East Asia.
  • Call for stakeholders to boost IPM
    A pan-European group of IPM experts has drawn on the work conducted within the three-year European Research Area Network on Coordinated Integrated Pest Management (ERA-Net C-IPM) to produce a paper outlining the steps stakeholders can take to boost IPM uptake in Europe.
  • The case for IPM breeding programmes
    European experts have called for a shake-up in the way crops are bred for Integrated Pest Management (IPM), pointing out that current private breeding programmes are mainly targeted at conventional agriculture and therefore do not produce the species and varieties more sustainable systems require.
  • Award marks Franco-Hungarian collaboration
    ENDURE coordinator Antoine Messéan has been made an Honorary Professor at Szent István University in Gödöllö, Hungary, in recognition of the long-standing collaboration between his institute, France’s National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), and the Hungarian university. It is a relationship first forged in collaborations for various Diabrotica-related European projects from 2000 and, specifically, 14 years ago during the preparation stage for the ENDURE Network of Excellence.
  • IPM central to wheat anti-resistance strategies
    EuroWheat has stressed the importance of implementing Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies in wheat as fungicide resistance continues to develop across the continent, raising concerns about the impact of Septoria tritici blotch (STB) on yields.
  • Halving pesticide use in apple orchards
    Researchers from INRA (France’s National Institute for Agricultural Research) have reported on their long-term experimental work on apple orchards, which has seen them reduce pesticide use by up to 50% through a series of measures based on increased forecasting and observation of pests and diseases.
  • £5 million boost to UK research
    Four of the United Kingdom’s leading universities and research centres have been given a £5.3 million (around €6 milllion) boost to fund their work on improving crop resilience, sustainability and quality. The recipients, including ENDURE partner Rothamsted Research (pictured), will receive the funding over the next five years to ‘help develop new technologies and environmentally friendly production for farmers and growers across the country’.
  • Biocontrol on the march in France
    French Integrated Pest Management (IPM) experts have provided an update on the biological control situation in the country, where these alternative control methods continue to be become more widely used in IPM strategies. The authors identify some of the key drivers behind these developments, including legal changes to encourage the development of new biocontrol options, major investments in both public and private research, the development of experimental networks and projects and the incorporation of biocontrol in the country’s pesticide savings certificate scheme (Certificats d’Economie de Produits de Phytopharmaceutiques or CEPP).
  • IPM ‘packages’ undergo field testing
    The EUCLID project’s Integrated Pest Management (IPM) ‘packages’ are currently undergoing field testing with farmers, offering alternative approaches for combating pests and diseases in three important crops (grapes, leafy vegetables and tomatoes).
  • JHI heads Centre of Expertise in Plant Health
    ENDURE’s Scottish partner, the James Hutton Institute (JHI), is heading up the country’s new Centre of Expertise in Plant Health, which is taking a coordinated cross-sector approach to pest monitoring and will also seek to help stakeholders improve their own plant health capabilities.
  • DiverIMPACTS: get the newsletter and flyer
    New ways of keeping up with the DiverIMPACTS project (Diversification through Rotation, Intercropping, Multiple Cropping, Promoted with Actors and value-Chains towards Sustainability) are now available with the publication of its first newsletter and the production of an informative flyer. Funded under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 programme, DiverIMPACTS brings together 34 partners from 11 countries, including farmers and farmer organisations, advisory services, cooperatives, logistics providers, scientists, industry professionals and representatives of civil society and rural areas with the aim of exploring the full potential of diversifying cropping systems and thereby improving agricultural productivity and resource efficiency and creating sustainable value chains.
  • Progress on more sustainable oilseed rape
    Two ENDURE partners have published details of their ongoing work on more sustainable methods for growing oilseed rape (OSR). INRA (France’s National Institute for Agricultural Research) has revealed details of its promising trials of accompanying winter rapeseed crops with legumes as a means of reducing weed pressure, while Germany’s Julius Kühn Institute (JKI) hosted an international workshop on ‘Clubroot disease in oilseed rape – status quo and research demand’ with an emphasis on integrated approaches.
  • Significant improvements required in NAPs
    The European Commission has urged Member States to ‘significantly’ improve their National Action Plans (NAP) to address the shortcomings identified in their review of progress on the implementation of the Pesticides Directive (2009/128/EC) and to ‘establish more precise and measurable targets’.
  • Search for SWD predators closes in
    The prospects of new biological controls to combat spotted-wing drosophila, a serious invasive pest causing extensive economic damage in berries and stone fruit, have moved a step closer thanks to two projects involving ENDURE partners.
  • Catch up with Agroecology Europe
    The first newsletter from Agroecology Europe is now available, offering reports and video from last October’s European Agroecology Forum, which brought together more than 300 farmers, researchers, students, policy makers and representatives from social movements and civil society in Lyon, France.
  • Crop loss conference: final report online
    The final report from last October’s three-day International Conference on Global Crop Losses Caused by Diseases, Pests and Weeds is now available. The event was organised by INRA, through its SMaCH (Sustainable Management of Crop Health) and GloFoodS (Transitions to Global Food Security) metaprogrammes, and in partnership with CIRAD and ISPP (International Society of Plant Pathology).
  • ‘One health’ approach to include crop pests 
    CIRAD and INRA, two of ENDURE’s French partners, have combined forces with other research and higher educational institutions to form a network to drive innovation in the control of not only crop pests but also arthropods which transmit pathogens causing infectious diseases in humans and animals.
  • New times ahead for European weed management
    Integrated weed management is the way to go for sustainable and resilient agriculture. A new Horizon 2020 project will support and promote its implementation in Europe, reports Janne Hansen, from the Department of Agroecology at Aarhus University, Denmark.
  • Agroscope trials fungi to control Japanese visitor
    Researchers from Agroscope, ENDURE’s Swiss partner, will this year be investigating whether it is feasible to control Japanese beetles in the field with a fungi that has already proved effective against May and June beetles.
  • Blight tracking results now available
    EuroBlight, the potato late blight network for Europe, has revealed the findings of its ongoing work to chart changes in the European population of the pathogen, a major effort which saw almost 1,500 samples from 16 countries genotyped in last year’s growing season.
  • Profiting from legumes
    The TRUE project has marked its first anniversary with the release of its second newsletter, bringing readers up to date with its work on ‘Transition paths to sustainable legume based systems in Europe’, which includes 24 case studies in three pedoclimatic regions across the continent (‘Atlantic’, ‘Continental’ and ‘Mediterranean’).
  • Updates for events calendar
    Nearly 20 new events have been added to ENDURE’s events calendar, including July’s 20th International Conference on Agroecology and Organic Farming, which is being held in the Swedish capital of Stockholm, and ECE 2018, the XI European Congress of Entomology, which is being staged the same month in Naples, Italy.
  • ESA 2018 to address innovative systems
    ENDURE’s Swiss partner Agroscope is leading the organisation of the XV European Society for Agronomy Congress, which runs from August 27 to 31 in the lakeside city of Geneva and will address the theme of ‘Innovative cropping and farming systems for high quality food production’.
  • EMPHASIS on LAMP technology
    The EMPHASIS project (Effective Management of Pests and Harmful Alien Species – Integrated Solutions), which is seeking practical solutions ‘to predict, to prevent and to protect agriculture and forestry systems from native and alien pests threats’, will be focusing on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) as an emerging molecular tool for the rapid in-field diagnosis of plant diseases at a summer school this July.
  • To find out more about ENDURE, visit: www.endure-network.eu

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International Conference on Global Crop Losses Caused by Diseases, Pests, and Weeds

An international conference on global crop losses was organized by Inra in Paris on three days (October 16 – 18, 2017).  The aim of this conference was to assess how plant diseases, pests, and weeds negatively affect crop health, crop performances, ecosystems and society. Although these negative impacts are well recognized, their quantification is still fragmented or incomplete.

Septoria tritici sur feuille de blé.. © INRA, SIMON J.C.
Updated on 01/23/2018
Published on 11/07/2017

The conference brought together key players in global agricultural and crop health research in order to explore and discuss opportunities related to analyzing, quantifying, and modelling crop losses to diseases and pests.The conference involved some 80 participants from 20 countries.

  • NEW : the final report is available HERE

The event was organized by INRA, through its Flagship Meta-Programs SMaCH (Sustainable Management of Crop Health) and GloFoodS (Transitions to Global Food Security), in partnership with Cirad and the ISPP  and support from the international networks AGMiP and MacSur. See details below.

Key questions addressed by the conference were:

  • What are the effects of diseases, pests, and weeds, on crop performances?
  • How can we understand, quantify, assess, and model these effects?
  • How and what can modelling contribute in the assessment of the impacts of diseases, pests, and weeds, especially on food security?
  • What could be the effects of climate and global changes on crop losses caused by plant diseases, pests, and weeds?

Eight keynotes were presented to address different aspects of crop loss quantification, modelling, and understanding:

  • Impacts of disease and pest crop losses on crop yields and agrosystem performances (K. J. Boote, University of Florida, USA)
    > See the slide show here.
  • Overview of approaches to quantify and model disease and pest losses (S. Savary, INRA, France)
    > See the slide show here.
  • Economic implications of disease and pest losses – modelling and analytical approaches (J. Antle, Oregon State University, USA)
    > See the slide show here.
  • Plant diseases in a changing climate, approaches to assess and estimate future crop risks (A. Von Tiedemann, University of Göttingen, Germany)
    > See the slide show here.
  • Pests and diseases data in the context of yield gaps – the Global Yield Gap Atlas (M. van Ittersum, Wageningen University, The Netherlands)
    > See the slide show here.
  • Linking crops with pests and diseases (K. C. Kersebaum, ZALF, Germany)
    > See the slide show here.
  • Past and ongoing experiences in developing open source online scientific data bases (A. Nelson, University of Twente, The Netherlands and J. Koo, IFPRI, USA)
    > See the slide show here.
  • Importance of disease and pest losses on key world crops – priorities (L. Willocquet, INRA, France)
    > See the slide show here.

> See the extended abstracts here.

These keynotes provided the background for three work groups, which addressed the themes of “Crop Loss Definition”, “Models for Crop Losses”, and “Data: Sources and Sharing”. Work conducted in each of these work groups will lead to a series of reports, including a white paper on crop loss data ontology.

Contact(s)
Scientific contact(s):

On the subject of

The event was organized by INRA, through its Flagship Meta-Programs SMaCH (Sustainable Management of Crop Health) and GloFoodS (Transitions to Global Food Security). The conference was organized in partnership with Cirad and the ISPP (International Society of Plant Pathology), and support from the international networks AGMiP http://www.agmip.org/ and MacSur.

A “superb” cicada

A “superb” southwestern Missouri cicada, Neotibicen superbus

Back in the summer of 2015, I made an early August trip to the White River Hills region of extreme southwestern Missouri. I was actually looking for one of Missouri’s more uncommon cerambycid beetles – Prionus pocularis, associated with shortleaf pine in the mixed hardwood/pine forests across the southern part of the state. I did not encounter the beetle in either my prionic acid-baited pitfall traps or at the ultraviolet lights I had set up the evening before, but while I was in the area I thought I would visit one of my favorite places in the region – Drury-Mincy Conservation Area in Taney Co. Sitting right on the border with Arkansas, the rolling hills of this area feature high-quality dolomite glades and post oak savannas. I’ve had some excellent collecting here in the past and hoped I would find something of interest this time as well. I didn’t arrive until after midnight, and since there are no hotels in the area I just slept in the car.

Neotibicen superbus

The next morning temperatures began to rise quickly, and with it so did the cacophony of cicadas getting into high gear with their droning buzz calls. As I passed underneath one particular tree I noticed the song was coming from a branch very near my head. I like cicadas, but had it been the song of a “normal” cicada like Neotibicen lyricen (lyric cicada) or N. pruinosus (scissor grinder cicada) I would have paid it no mind. It was, instead, unfamiliar and distinctive, and when I searched the branches above me I recognized the beautiful insect responsible for the call as Neotibicen superbus (superb cicada), a southwest Missouri specialty—sumptuous lime-green above and bright white pruinose beneath. I had not seen this spectacular species since the mid 1980s (most of my visits to the area have been in the spring or the fall rather than high summer), and I managed to catch it and take a quick iPhone photograph for documentation. A species this beautiful, however, deserves ‘real’ photos, so I spent the next couple of hours attempting to photograph an individual in situ with the big camera. Of course, this is much, much easier said than done, especially with this species—their bulging eyes give them exceptional vision, and they are very skittish and quick to take flight. Most of the individuals that I located were too high up in the canopy to allow a shot, and each individual that was low enough for me to approach ended up fluttering off with a screech before I could even compose a shot, much less press the shutter. Persistence paid, however, and I eventually managed to approach and photograph an unusually calm female resting – quite conveniently – at chest height on the trunk of a persimmon tree.

Sanborn-Phillips_2013_Fig-16

According to Sanborn & Phillips (2013, Figure 16 – reproduced above), Neotibicen superbus, is found in trees within grassland environments primarily in eastern Texas and Oklahoma, although records of it exist from each of the surrounding states – especially southern Missouri and northern Arkansas (Figure 16 below, Sanborn & Phillips 2013). Later the same day I would see the species abundantly again in another of the region’s dolomite glades – this one in Roaring River State Park further west in Barry Co., suggesting that dolomite glades are the preferred habitat in this part of its range. Interestingly, I think the Missouri records at least must be relatively recent, as Froeschner (1952) did not include the species in his synopsis of Missouri cicadas. This was all the information I had back in the 1980s when I first encountered the species in southwestern Missouri, its apparent unrecorded status in the state making it an even more exciting find at the time.

Neotibicen superbus

REFERENCES:

Froeschner, R. C.  1952. A synopsis of the Cicadidae of Missouri. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 60:1–14 [pdf].

Sanborn, A. F. & P. K. Phillips. 2013. Biogeography of the cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of North America, north of Mexico. Diversity 5(2):166–239 [abstractpdf].

© Ted C. MacRae 2018