Archive for the ‘Phytosanitary’ Category

August 18, 2022 

Vinod Pandit 

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Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures: Challenges and opportunities in Asia and the Pacific region

Global agricultural exports have more than tripled in value and doubled in volume since 1995, exceeding US $1.8 trillion in 2018. Plant and plant-based products contribute more than 50% to the total trade. International trade in fruits and vegetables stands at 24% followed by 15% cereals; and 10% comprising coffee, tea, cocoa & spices.

This progress was possible by smaller and bigger economies coming together under the World Trade Organisation (WTO) trade agreement umbrella. Membership was confirmed with the signing of agreements, including the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) agreement.

SPS agreement

The Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) agreement is defined as, “including all relevant laws, decrees, regulations, requirements, and procedures regarding food safety”. It ensures that nations enact health and safety measures based on sound scientific methods. What is more, it sets the framework by which international, regional, and national agencies create and implement SPS standards. Obligations towards its implementation are a crucial step toward enhanced transparency in the trade of agriculture commodities between member countries.

However, the emergence of new and stricter standards for agricultural imports in developed economies has also led to a number of new challenges for developing countries trying to increase their trade as a means for economic growth.  Many of these challenges are related to compliance with these rigorous standards. In addition, weak institutional capacities of National Plant Protection Organizations (NPPOs) in the least developed countries (LDCs) for compliance and trade agreement negotiations involving SPS are key factors in limiting the inclusivity of small-scale actors in value chains.

CABI and FAO study

To understand these challenges and take advantage of the opportunities, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and CAB International (CABI) are leading a study in the Asia and Pacific region. Entitled “Regional webinar on Opportunities and Challenges in Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures – Modernizing SPS to facilitate agricultural trade in Asia”, it focuses on Bangladesh, Bhutan, Kiribati, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan, Solomon Islands, and Vietnam.

The study’s objective is to understand the status quo and specific challenges for each country. In addition, what SPS requirements would allow the individual countries to meet the requisite compliances and support improved and wider integration into global value chains?  The study is being conducted by CABI experts from India, China, Pakistan, the UK, and Kenya.

Understanding the realities

Mr. Gopi Ramasamy (Regional Director, CABI South Asia) stated that despite agriculture contributing significantly to country GDP in most Asia pacific countries, Asia’s share of global trade is still at 20-25%. Intra-regional trade is happening much easier than global trade. The ongoing study will help us to understand the ground realities in the Asia Pacific region in terms of trade and the way forward to augment global trade from Asia through technological and policy interventions.  

Dr. Yubak Dhoj GC (FAO RAP, Bangkok) said that FAO through its strategic narrative of supporting the transformation to more efficient, inclusive, resilient, and sustainable agri-food systems and respective programme priority area (PPA) BN5: Transparent markets and trade is committed to improved market transparency and equitable participation in markets, global value chains and international trade that can be achieved through policy coordination and human and institutional capacities for evidence-based decision-making. The commissioned study will identify such issues and opportunities to achieve the objective of PPP for improved transparency and trade.

SPS issue in Asia and Pacific countries

Dr. Vinod Pandit (CABI India), Project Manager for the study stated that “Such barriers or trade restrictions to market access must be understood, removed or complied with, in order for smallholder farmers in these countries to move beyond subsistence agriculture”. He further said that the study has a well-drafted plan to a) analyse & document the issues pertaining to SPS in Asia and Pacific countries, b) Develop a position statement on SPS issues in the region, c) Orientation and introduction of digital tools like PRA, HST, ePhyto, PCE, etc. Dr. Pandit reported that the country reports developed out of this work will serve as a ready reckoner to national and international organizations. The project team also envisages using the outcomes of this study for future implementation in the region.

Study team member Dr. Julie Flood (CABI UK), explained that though countries in the region are having almost uniform issues related to pests, pesticides, and procedural issues, they are at different stages of adoption of SPS agreements and systems (e.g., digital uptake). 

Stakeholder motivation

Ms. Kritika Khanna (CABI India), Team manager highlighted the interest and motivations of different in-country stakeholders in being part of this study. She mentioned that as a part of the project, a series of workshops and webinars have been conducted with active participation, meaningful debates, and discussions from a large number of stakeholders. An immediate need was felt to help countries in raising the bar on compliance with international standards and trading partner requirements.

Dr. Shama Praveen (CABI India) who has done an in-depth analysis of the country reports informed that though countries broadly face issues related to pests and MRLs, country trends show significant cases of MRL issues related to pesticides and aflatoxins.

Dr. Hongmei Li (CABI China) team member who worked extensively in South East Asia pointed out that the Asia and Pacific region is making major contributions to agricultural production and export globally. Timely and effective alignment with SPS will effectively reduce unnecessary losses among the international trades. This will improve the incomes of smallholder farmers.

Strengthening infrastructure

There is an urgent need to strengthen infrastructure and capacity building for pests identification and pesticide issues. Dr. Jayne Crozier (CABI UK) team member is of the view that this in-depth study will lead to a better understanding of issues countries in the region are facing. What’s more, critical analysis will help in developing a regional approach to minimizing the issues related to agri-trade.

Dr. Habat Ullah Asad (CABI Pakistan) team member is responsible for documenting and analyzing SPS issues in Pakistan stated that the Pakistani agro-food industry has a high potential for international exports. However, Pakistan is facing problems due to its wider resource and infrastructure constraints that limit not only its ability to comply with SPS requirements but also its ability to demonstrate compliance. However, the establishment of a national SPS authority for SPS stakeholder coordination; capacity building of relevant public, and private stakeholder personnel, and improvement in infrastructure, and storage facilities will help ensure proper SPS compliance from field to destination.

Digital tool implementation

A regional webinar series on digital tools highlighted that country stakeholders are looking forward to orientation, adoption, and implementation of the digital tools in these countries, and are seeking international support to facilitate their installation and usage. Stakeholders are of the view that these tools will largely facilitate agri trade in their country.

The study as a whole will attempt to understand the field level bottlenecks in different countries in Asia that are influenced by various socio-economic, technological and policy level factors. Documenting these challenges and addressing them through subsequent interventions is expected to augment cross-border trade from Asian countries resulting in increased global trade from these economies. 


Agriculture and International Development

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“We are confident that we can quickly contain this outbreak thanks to the experience we have containing it”

Authorities confirm the presence of Fusarium R4 in a plant at a farm in the Colombian department of Magdalena

The Colombian Agricultural Institute (ICA) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development confirmed the presence of Fusarium Tropical Race 4, Foc R4T, in a Cavendish banana plant at a farm located in a municipality of the Magdalena department.

“This plantation has 193,461 banana plants planted in 108.53 hectares and we have only detected one single plant affected. The sample was analyzed at the ICA Phytosanitary Diagnostic Laboratory in Soledad-Atlántico, which confirmed that plant tissue was affected by the disease,” the authorities stated.

Based on the experience in the management of Fusarium in La Guajira, which has yielded excellent results, the ICA, the Ministry of Agriculture, Asbama, and Augura deployed the protocols established for the control and prevention of the spread of the fungus in Magdalena. Additionally, and as part of the outbreak delimitation process, authorities are taking 170 plant samples this week in a 5 km radius from the farm, which covers a total of 7 farms.

“We are confident that we can quickly contain this outbreak thanks to the experience we have gotten containing and managing Fusarium,” stated the Minister of Agriculture, Rodolfo Zea Navarro. The national government is coordinating with all the institutions, mayors, and unions the actions necessary to generate confidence in world markets, he added.

The general manager of ICA, Deyanira Barrero Leon, said the pathogen was detected in a single plant in the entire farm. “We took five more samples from the same farm which were negative for Foc R4T and we immediately complemented this case with 40 samples from plants from the same lot and neighboring lots.”

To contain the spread of the plague, the entities established the creation of a Fusarium management group with a scientific, technical, and academic committee. They will also build a risk map or matrix with the identification of neuralgic points, to be able to take specific actions.

The Association of Banana Growers of Colombia (Augura) requested the creation of a washing and disinfection station in Orihueca. They also said it was essential to define support for small producers in the region for the short, medium, and long term.

Source: rcnradio.com

Publication date: Fri 24 Dec 2021

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Tomato exports to eight countries still off the table due to plant disease

8:32 pm on 28 October 2021 Share this 

RNZ New Zealand

It’s peak tomato season but exports to eight countries remain off the table after the discovery of a plant disease here.No caption

Photo: Thomas Martinsen/ Unsplash

In April, Pepino Mosaic Virus was found in a greenhouse in Auckland. The extremely contagious disease can affect the yield of crops and delay fruit growth.

The Ministry for Primary Industries said following the initial detection, the virus had since spread to four more glasshouses.

Exports have been put on ice for eight countries where the disease is a biosecurity concern, including Australia and some Pacific nations.

Tomatoes NZ general manager Helen Barnes said while its biggest market, Japan, was still open for business, the situation was not ideal given Covid-related freight problems were already testing growers.

“There’s a bit of uncertainty and it’s quite challenging.”

Barnes said because the virus had only been on the industry’s radar for six months it was unclear what impact it would have on New Zealand’s tomato crops.

“It seems to be that if you’ve got a strong healthy crop, then the plants seem to grow through the virus. We’re still learning a lot.”

The Ministry for Primary Industries is working to reopen several export markets for tomato growers as they approach the peak of the export period.

MPI biosecurity response manager David Yard said it was providing assurances to these markets about the efforts going into controlling the disease.

“We’re working with the industry now on improving good biosecurity, keeping things clean, controlling people movements, and disposing of green waste, to try and minimise the spread of this virus to further greenhouse complexes.”

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First finding of pathotype 38 (Nevşehir) of Synchytrium endobioticum in the Netherlands

The NPPO of the Netherlands recently informed the EPPO Secretariat of the first detection of the pathotype 38 (Nevşehir) of Synchytrium endobioticum (EPPO A2 List, agent of potato wart disease) on its territory. 

As part of the annual official survey of starch and ware potatoes, the presence of
 S. endobioticum was detected in October 2020 in 3 fields (total of 14.43 ha) in the municipality of Stadskanaal (Province of Groningen). Starch potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) presented typical warts. The pathotype was determined in July 2021 on the basis of a bio-assay (Spieckermann method) in combination with sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA of the isolates. It is the first time that pathotype 38 (Nevşehir) is found in the Netherlands and the NPPO considers that the source of the outbreak is outside the Netherlands. This pathotype is only known to occur in Turkey (where it was initally reported), Bulgaria and Georgia.

Official phytosanitary measures are applied: all 3 fields have been demarcated as infested areas for at least 20 years, together with a buffer zone and safety zone, as defined in Council Directive 69/464/EC. The production of potato is prohibited in the infested area and only resistant potato varieties may be grown in the buffer and safety zones. The production of plants for planting (e.g. seed potato) is prohibited in all demarcated areas.

During autumn 2021 the annual survey for S. endobioticum will focus on detection of this new pathotype in this area.

The pest status of Synchytrium endobioticum in the Netherlands is officially declared as: Present, under eradication, only in demarcated areas.


NPPO of the Netherlands (2021-09).

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First Report of Tomato Brown Rugose Fruit Virus on Tomato in Syria

  • APS

Ziad M Hasan, Nidà Mohammed Salem, Imad D. Ismail, Insaf Akel, and Ahmad Y AhmadPublished Online:2 Sep 2021https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-21-1356-PDN


Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important vegetable crop worldwide. In spring and autumn 2017, virus-like symptoms were observed on greenhouse grown tomato plants in the east of Akkar plain (south of coastal region, Tartous governorate, Syria). These symptoms were: mild to severe mosaic on the apical leaves, brown necrosis on sepals, receptacle and flower’s cluster carrier, and severe symptoms of brown rugose and discoloration on fruit. During next growing seasons, disease spread was observed in most of Syrian coastal region with disease incidence ranged from 40% to 70% by 2020. Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) was suspected as a main causal agent of the disease, especially since its first report in Jordan, a neighboring country (Salem et al. 2016), Palestine (Alkowni et al. 2019), Turkey (Fidan et al. 2019), Germany (Menzel et al. 2019), Italy (Panno et al. 2019), America (Camacho-Beltrán et al. 2019), Egypt (Amer and Mahmoud, 2020), and recently in Spain (Alfaro-Fernandez et al. 2021). In November and December 2020, seventy-one leaf samples from symptomatic plants (59 from Tartous and 12 from Lattakia governorates) and seven from asymptomatic ones (5 from Tartous and 2 from Lattakia) were collected and tested for the presence of ToBRFV by double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA), using ToBRFV-commercial kit (LOEWE® Biochemia, Germany) following the manufacturer’s instructions. Results showed, forty-three of symptomatic samples reacted positively (38 in Tartous and 5 in Lattakia) and none of asymptomatic ones. On the other hand, sap mechanical inoculation of 10 tomato cv. Mandaloun F1 (Enza Zaden, the Netherlands) plants using a positive tomato isolate gave systemic mosaic symptoms in all plants identical to those observed in the original plants in the field, after 13 days of inoculation, and necrotic local lesions on 10 plants of Nicotiana tabacum after 5 days, indicating the presence of a tobamovirus in general. ToBRFV infection was confirmed in all mechanically-inoculated plants by DAS-ELISA. Further tests were necessary to investigate ToBRFV presence, because of its serological relationships with another tobamoviruses. Six representative symptomatic samples (ELISA-positive) and two asymptomatic (ELISA-negative) samples were subjected to total RNA extraction using the SV-Total RNA Extraction kit (Promega, U.S.A.) following the manufacturer’s instructions. The samples were tested by two-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using species-specific primers and protocols for most common tomato-infecting viruses, including: tomato chlorosis virus and tomato infectious chlorosis virus (Dovas et al. 2002), pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) and tomato torrado virus (Wieczorek et al. 2013), alfalfa mosaic virus (Parrella et al. 2000), tomato spotted wilt virus (Salem et al. 2012) and a pair of primers: ToBRFV-F2 (5’-CATATCTCTCGACACCAGTAAAAGGACCCG-3’) and ToBRFV-R2 (5’-TCCGAGTATAGGAAGACTCTGGTTGGTC-3’) targeting a region of the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), of the ToBRFV genome (KT383474; Salem et al. 2016). First-strand cDNA synthesis was carried out using Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (M-MLV RT; Promega) and random primer according to the manufacturer’s protocol, then followed by PCR with the seven species-specific primers. Only ToBRFV was detected among all tested viruses in symptomatic samples (ELISA-positive), and none of the tested viruses was detected in the asymptomatic plants. To confirm the presence of ToBRFV, two selected RdRp-specific PCR amplicons (872 bp) were purified and ligated into pGEM T-Easy Vector (Promega), and three clones were sequenced (GenBank accession nos. MZ447794 to 96). BLASTn analysis showed that the nucleotide sequences are 99.77-100% identical and shared around 99% identity to RdRp of ToBRFV isolate (MT118666) from Turkey available in the GenBank. Accordingly, the presence of ToBRFV was confirmed by bioassays on indicator plants, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR, and further sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ToBRFV infecting tomato in Syria, and this requires special emphasis for further investigations because of the virus severity, easy transmission ability and absent of commercial resistance varieties till now.

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First report of banana bunchy top virus in banana and plantain (Musa spp.) in Tanzania

  • APS

Shimwela Mpoki, George Mahuku, Deusdedith Rugaihukamu Mbanzibwa, Geoffrey Mkamilo, Deogratius Mark, Harrison Mosha, Beatrice Dominic Pallangyyo, Michael Fihavango, Adedamola Oresanya, Patricia Ogunsanya, and P L KumarPublished Online:27 Sep 2021https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-21-1387-PDN


Banana (including plantain; Musa spp.) is an important vegetatively propagated food staple grown as a semi-perennial crop in fields and backyard gardens in Tanzania. Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD), caused by the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV, genus Babuvirus), is the most economically important viral disease of banana, infection of which results in severe stunting and reduction in fruit production by 90-100% within two seasons. The virus is spread by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa, and through vegetative propagation of infected sources. BBTV is an introduced virus first reported in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in the 1960s in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Since then, BBTV spread was confirmed in 15 countries in Central, Southern, and Western African regions but was not detected in any previous surveys in the East African sub-region. During banana pests and disease surveys conducted in December 2020 – January 2021 in Buhigwe District in the Kigoma Region of Tanzania revealed banana plants with typical BBTV symptoms (severe stunting, leaves with shortened petioles, chlorotic streaks, and yellow leaf margins) in several banana fields in Muhinda (lon. 29.78662, lat. -4.53672) and Mwayaya (lon. 29.8218, lat. -4.49203) villages. Most of the affected plantations were 5 to 15 years old. Leaf samples (N=21) from symptomatic (N=6) and asymptomatic (N=15) banana plants were collected and used for total DNA extraction and BBTV detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the primer pair BBTV-1 and BBTV-2 to amplify ~240 bp sequence of DNA-R encoding for core master replication initiator protein gene. All samples from symptomatic plants tested positive and asymptomatic plants were negative. To further confirm the virus identity, four samples, each from symptomatic (PCR positive) and asymptomatic (PCR negative) plants from Muhinda and Mwayaya villages, were tested by Triple Antibody Sandwich-Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (TAS-ELISA) using BBTV ELISA reagent set (Cat. # SRA24700-1000, Agdia, France) following the manufacturer’s protocol. Samples from symptomatic plants reacted positively in TAS-ELISA, and asymptomatic plants were negative. The 240-bp PCR product of two isolates was purified, and both strands were sequenced. A BLAST search of the nucleotide sequences (NCBI GenBank Acc.# MW711671 and MW711672) revealed 99% identity with DNA-R sequences of several other BBTV isolates from Africa (Acc. No# JF755994). Further analysis of the 240-bp nucleotide sequences with Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis using MEGA-X software has grouped the two BBTV sequence isolates with the SSA sub-clade of the South-Pacific group. To our knowledge, this is the first report of BBTV infecting bananas in Tanzania, and East Africa endowed with rich banana diversity and popular East African Highland banana clone. BBTV presents a new threat to banana production in this sub-region due to the high risk of further spread through vegetative propagation, traditional planting material exchange practices, and the ubiquitous banana aphid vector. This study warrants delimitation surveys to assess the extent of spread, with simultaneous efforts to raise awareness about BBTD recognition and control measures among banana growers, including eradicating infected mats and replanting with healthy planting material to recover banana production.

  • The American Phytopathological Society (APS)
  • 3352 Sherman Court, Suite 202, St. Paul, MN 55121 USA+1.651.454.7250+1.651.454.0766 APS

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Ava-Asaja demands drastic measures to prevent the advance of the insect

Trioza erytreae, the vector that transmits HLB, arrives in the Portuguese Algarve

The Valencian Association of Farmers (Ava-Asaja) demands that the Spanish Government and the European Union (EU) assess and implement drastic measures to prevent the advance of the Trioza erytreae insect, the vector of the Huanglongbing (HLB) disease -the most devastating disease for citrus in the world that is known as citrus greening or yellow dragon disease- after learning that this insect had already reached Algarve, in southern Portugal. This insect’s advance from the north and center of the Portuguese country to the citrus fruits of the Algarve increases the possibility that this transmitting vector and the HLB bacteria will reach the citrus farms of Huelva and the rest of Spain and Europe.

Female Trioza erytreae.

Ava-Asaja urged authorities to take all the scientific actions possible to stop the spread of this plague or, at least, to slow down the speed of its geographical progression. The agrarian organization highlighted an ambitious plan endowed with community funds aimed at promoting lines of research, breeding, and carrying out a massive release of highly effective parasitoids against HLB transmitting vectors.

In this regard, the Tamarixia drii predator has managed to reduce the presence of Trioza erytreae by more than 90% in the citrus farms investigated in the Canary Islands. Meanwhile, there are international studies on parasitoids that could also combat the other HLB vector, Diaphorina citri, which is even better adapted to the Mediterranean climate.

In the event that the bacteria arrive, the association urges the exploration of stronger complementary measures such as cutting down infested trees because, just as with Xylella fastidiosa, there still is no cure for this disease that has caused unaffordable losses for citrus growers and the uprooting of trees in the countries it has affected. Finally, Ava-Asaja asked the Spanish Government to work hand in hand with the Portuguese executive so that they are informed of the evolution of the situation and can act in the most coordinated and forceful way possible.

“The terrible news we’ve received about the HLB vector is further proof of the little seriousness and rigor with which the European Commission toys with agricultural pests and diseases. In recent years, they have been unable to prevent the entry and expansion of many pests and diseases coming via imports from third countries, such as Xylella fastidiosa, South African cotonet, or the almond wasp. Now we are facing the worst threat to the world’s citrus industry. In the absence of curative solutions, the best medicine for HLB is prevention. However, that may not be enough so we might have to take stronger measures,” stated the president of Ava-Asaja, Cristobal Aguado.

For more information:

Tel.: +34 963 804 606

Publication date: Mon 4 Oct 2021

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About PestLens


Thursday, August 19, 2021 Notification

First detections of the tobamovirus Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) in Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia
Source: Hortidaily, Slovenia Times
Event:  Detection In June and July of 2021, the tobamovirus Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) was detected in cultivated Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) plants in Switzerland and Austria. Additionally, molecular assays detected ToBRFV in a Capsicum annuum (pepper) seed lot in Slovenia. The infected seed lot was imported from the Czech Republic from seed originating from China. Some seeds from the infected lot were planted in Slovenia. Phytosanitary measures have been implemented in Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia. These are the first detections of ToBRFV in Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia. ToBRFV primarily infects S. lycopersicum and Capsicum spp. (pepper). ToBRFV has been reported from Egypt, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, China, and Mexico and has been detected in other parts of Europe and New Zealand. In the United States, ToBRFV has been detected in and eradicated from California. Tobamoviruses are transmitted mechanically and by seed, and ToBRFV can be transmitted by the bumble bee Bombus terrestris, which is not known to occur in the United States. The 2019 PPQ Prioritized Offshore Pest List includes ToBRFV as a pest of concern. References: Hortidaily. 2021. First report of Tomato brown rugose fruit virus in Austria and Switzerland. Hortidaily. August 9, 2021. Last accessed August 19, 2021, from https://www.hortidaily.com/article/9342639/first-report-of-tomato-brown-rugose-fruit-virus-in-austria-and-switzerland/. Slovenia Times. 2021. Tomato brown rugose fruit virus confirmed in Slovenia. Slovenia Times. August 13, 2021. Last accessed August 19, 2021, from https://sloveniatimes.com/tomato-brown-rugose-fruit-virus-confirmed-in-slovenia/.
Other PestLens articles about this pest:
First detections of the tobamovirus Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) in Norway, Hungary, and Bulgaria
First detection of the tobamovirus Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) in Malta
First detection of the tobamovirus Tomato brown rugose fruit virus in Belgium
First detection of the tobamovirus Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) in New Zealand
Disinfection of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) seeds from the tobamovirus Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) If you have any questions or comments for us about this article, please e-mail us at pestlens@usda.gov or log into the PestLens web system and click on “Contact Us” to submit your feedback.

First report of Malaysian fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae), in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Source: EPPO Bulletin
Event:  New Location Recently, Malaysian fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae), adults were observed emerging from postharvest Solanum aethiopicum (Ethiopian eggplant) fruits in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This is the first report of B. latifrons in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Bactrocera latifrons is primarily a pest of Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Bactrocera latifrons has been reported from other parts of Africa, Iran, and Asia. In the United States, it has been detected in and eradicated from California and has been reported from Hawaii. References: Ndayizeye, L. and C. K. Balangaliza. 2021. First report of Bactrocera latifrons Hendel in the Democratic Republic of Congo. EPPO Bulletin DOI: 10.1111/ epp.12746. Last accessed August 19, 2021, from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/epp.12746.
Other PestLens articles about this pest:
Detection of Malaysian fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae), in Italy
Assessment of Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and C. reticulata (tangerine) as hosts of Malaysian fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons, and melon fruit fly, B. cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)
New host records for Malaysian fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) If you have any questions or comments for us about this article, please e-mail us at pestlens@usda.gov or log into the PestLens web system and click on “Contact Us” to submit your feedback.

First report of the fungus Phaeoacremonium oleae (Sordariomycetes: Togniniales) in Italy
Source: Plant Disease
Event:  New Location From 2013 to 2019, cultivated Olea europaea (olive) plants in Italy exhibited shoot death, trunk and branch vascular discoloration, and wood necrosis. Morphological and molecular analyses, as well as fulfillment of Koch’s postulates, confirmed that the causal agent was the fungus Phaeoacremonium oleae (Sordariomycetes: Togniniales). This is the first report of P. oleae in Italy. Phaeoacremonium oleae infects O. europaea. Phaeoacremonium oleae has also been reported from South Africa and is not known to occur in the United States. References: Raimondo, M. L., F. Lops, and A. Carlucci. 2021. First report of Phaeoacremonium oleae and P. viticola associated with olive trunk diseases in Italy. Plant Disease DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-06-21-1198-PDN. Last accessed August 19, 2021, from https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/pdf/10.1094/PDIS-06-21-1198-PDN. If you have any questions or comments for us about this article, please e-mail us at pestlens@usda.gov or log into the PestLens web system and click on “Contact Us” to submit your feedback.

Four new scale species described from Colombia
Source: Zoosystema
Event:  New Description/Identification A recent publication describes four new scale species, Newsteadia andreae (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae), Distichlicoccus takumasae (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), Paraputo nasai (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), and Pseudococcus luciae (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), collected from roots of Coffea arabica (coffee) plants in Colombia. References: Caballero, A. 2021. Four new scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) associated with coffee roots in Colombia, South America, with identification keys for genera Newsteadia Green, 1902, Distichlicoccus Ferris, 1950, and Paraputo Laing, 1929. Zoosystema 43(18):341-363. Last accessed August 19, 2021, from https://bioone.org/journals/zoosystema/volume-43/issue-18. If you have any questions or comments for us about this article, please e-mail us at pestlens@usda.gov or log into the PestLens web system and click on “Contact Us” to submit your feedback.
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Japan finds fungicides on Taiwanese bananas

As Taiwan is increasing its export of pineapples to Japan due to China’s ban, due to high levels of fungicides, the Japanese ordered the removal of 750 boxes of Taiwanese bananas.

However, according to the US Department of Agriculture (CNA), the Agriculture and Food Administration of the Council of Agriculture (AFA) described the case as an isolated incident, which is unlikely to affect overall fruit exports to Japan.

A Japanese company called Wismettac Foods, Inc. announced on March 10 it was recalling Taiwan bananas due to the presence of 0.12 parts per million of the fungicide Pyraclostrobin, or six times the maximum level allowed.

AFA said a discovery of that type of fungicide was extremely rare. Wismettac had told consumers to return Taiwan bananas bought between March 1 and March 3. The Japanese had not sent the fruit back to Taiwan but destroyed them locally, according to AFA.

After a batch of Taiwanese bananas was turned away by a Japanese company on Wednesday (March 10) due to excessive quantities of the fungicide Pyraclostrobin, a toxicologist has suggested people wash bananas and oranges before eating them.

Taiwanese toxicologist suggests washing bananas
Director of Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital’s Department of Clinical Toxicology Yen Tsung-hai told reporters on Saturday that Pyraclostrobin is a fungicide with low toxicity that will not cause cancer.

Source: taiwannews.com.tw

Publication date: Mon 15 Mar 2021

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From PestNetfresh fruit logoffp



Chile: Medfly outbreak in Valparaiso region

March 13 , 2018

An outbreak of Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) has been discovered in Chile’s Valparaiso region, in a rural area of a commune that lies to the north of the capital Santiago.

Eight insects were found in traps in the commune of Los Andes, and authorities have now established a 7.2-kilometer control area. Additional traps have also been placed and contingency plans have been implemented.

There have been numerous Medfly detections in recent months, with authorities finding an insect in the eastern Santiago suburbof Las Condes in December, and the following month finding 16 Medflies in San Bernardo to the capital’s southwest.

The Agricultural and Livestock Service (SAG) said the recent detections had been made thanks to the surveillance network present throughout Chile.

“There was an opportune detection, thanks to the trapping system that the institution has throughout the country and thanks to our personnel who acted quickly,” SAG national director Angel Sartori said.

“To control and eradicate this outbreak we ask for collaboration from the people in facilitating the entry of inspectors into their homes to carry out the necessary treatments for these cases.

“In addition, we reiterate that people who travel outside of the country must not enter Chile with products that are not authorized by SAG, as they can put our agriculture at risk.”

The Medfly is one of the most damaging agricultural pests in the world, attacking more than 250 species of fruit and vegetables.




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Faw RISK aS REPT Cover

The document, ‘Pest Risk Assessment of the Fall Armyworm in Egypt’ has just been released by the Feed the Future Integrated Pest Management Lab at VA Tech. The document provides information on the following subjects:

FAW identification



Mortality and dispersal

Spread and establishment

Risk to other countries

Economic impact

Development of a management plan for the FAW in Egypt

The document can be accessed on the IPM IL website at:

Click to access Egypt-FAW-Risk-Assessment-12-14-17.pdf

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