Archive for the ‘Phytosanitary’ Category

First finding of pathotype 38 (Nevşehir) of Synchytrium endobioticum in the Netherlands

The NPPO of the Netherlands recently informed the EPPO Secretariat of the first detection of the pathotype 38 (Nevşehir) of Synchytrium endobioticum (EPPO A2 List, agent of potato wart disease) on its territory. 

As part of the annual official survey of starch and ware potatoes, the presence of
 S. endobioticum was detected in October 2020 in 3 fields (total of 14.43 ha) in the municipality of Stadskanaal (Province of Groningen). Starch potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) presented typical warts. The pathotype was determined in July 2021 on the basis of a bio-assay (Spieckermann method) in combination with sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA of the isolates. It is the first time that pathotype 38 (Nevşehir) is found in the Netherlands and the NPPO considers that the source of the outbreak is outside the Netherlands. This pathotype is only known to occur in Turkey (where it was initally reported), Bulgaria and Georgia.

Official phytosanitary measures are applied: all 3 fields have been demarcated as infested areas for at least 20 years, together with a buffer zone and safety zone, as defined in Council Directive 69/464/EC. The production of potato is prohibited in the infested area and only resistant potato varieties may be grown in the buffer and safety zones. The production of plants for planting (e.g. seed potato) is prohibited in all demarcated areas.

During autumn 2021 the annual survey for S. endobioticum will focus on detection of this new pathotype in this area.

The pest status of Synchytrium endobioticum in the Netherlands is officially declared as: Present, under eradication, only in demarcated areas.


NPPO of the Netherlands (2021-09).

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First Report of Tomato Brown Rugose Fruit Virus on Tomato in Syria

  • APS

Ziad M Hasan, Nidà Mohammed Salem, Imad D. Ismail, Insaf Akel, and Ahmad Y AhmadPublished Online:2 Sep 2021https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-21-1356-PDN


Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important vegetable crop worldwide. In spring and autumn 2017, virus-like symptoms were observed on greenhouse grown tomato plants in the east of Akkar plain (south of coastal region, Tartous governorate, Syria). These symptoms were: mild to severe mosaic on the apical leaves, brown necrosis on sepals, receptacle and flower’s cluster carrier, and severe symptoms of brown rugose and discoloration on fruit. During next growing seasons, disease spread was observed in most of Syrian coastal region with disease incidence ranged from 40% to 70% by 2020. Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) was suspected as a main causal agent of the disease, especially since its first report in Jordan, a neighboring country (Salem et al. 2016), Palestine (Alkowni et al. 2019), Turkey (Fidan et al. 2019), Germany (Menzel et al. 2019), Italy (Panno et al. 2019), America (Camacho-Beltrán et al. 2019), Egypt (Amer and Mahmoud, 2020), and recently in Spain (Alfaro-Fernandez et al. 2021). In November and December 2020, seventy-one leaf samples from symptomatic plants (59 from Tartous and 12 from Lattakia governorates) and seven from asymptomatic ones (5 from Tartous and 2 from Lattakia) were collected and tested for the presence of ToBRFV by double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA), using ToBRFV-commercial kit (LOEWE® Biochemia, Germany) following the manufacturer’s instructions. Results showed, forty-three of symptomatic samples reacted positively (38 in Tartous and 5 in Lattakia) and none of asymptomatic ones. On the other hand, sap mechanical inoculation of 10 tomato cv. Mandaloun F1 (Enza Zaden, the Netherlands) plants using a positive tomato isolate gave systemic mosaic symptoms in all plants identical to those observed in the original plants in the field, after 13 days of inoculation, and necrotic local lesions on 10 plants of Nicotiana tabacum after 5 days, indicating the presence of a tobamovirus in general. ToBRFV infection was confirmed in all mechanically-inoculated plants by DAS-ELISA. Further tests were necessary to investigate ToBRFV presence, because of its serological relationships with another tobamoviruses. Six representative symptomatic samples (ELISA-positive) and two asymptomatic (ELISA-negative) samples were subjected to total RNA extraction using the SV-Total RNA Extraction kit (Promega, U.S.A.) following the manufacturer’s instructions. The samples were tested by two-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using species-specific primers and protocols for most common tomato-infecting viruses, including: tomato chlorosis virus and tomato infectious chlorosis virus (Dovas et al. 2002), pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) and tomato torrado virus (Wieczorek et al. 2013), alfalfa mosaic virus (Parrella et al. 2000), tomato spotted wilt virus (Salem et al. 2012) and a pair of primers: ToBRFV-F2 (5’-CATATCTCTCGACACCAGTAAAAGGACCCG-3’) and ToBRFV-R2 (5’-TCCGAGTATAGGAAGACTCTGGTTGGTC-3’) targeting a region of the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), of the ToBRFV genome (KT383474; Salem et al. 2016). First-strand cDNA synthesis was carried out using Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (M-MLV RT; Promega) and random primer according to the manufacturer’s protocol, then followed by PCR with the seven species-specific primers. Only ToBRFV was detected among all tested viruses in symptomatic samples (ELISA-positive), and none of the tested viruses was detected in the asymptomatic plants. To confirm the presence of ToBRFV, two selected RdRp-specific PCR amplicons (872 bp) were purified and ligated into pGEM T-Easy Vector (Promega), and three clones were sequenced (GenBank accession nos. MZ447794 to 96). BLASTn analysis showed that the nucleotide sequences are 99.77-100% identical and shared around 99% identity to RdRp of ToBRFV isolate (MT118666) from Turkey available in the GenBank. Accordingly, the presence of ToBRFV was confirmed by bioassays on indicator plants, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR, and further sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ToBRFV infecting tomato in Syria, and this requires special emphasis for further investigations because of the virus severity, easy transmission ability and absent of commercial resistance varieties till now.

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First report of banana bunchy top virus in banana and plantain (Musa spp.) in Tanzania

  • APS

Shimwela Mpoki, George Mahuku, Deusdedith Rugaihukamu Mbanzibwa, Geoffrey Mkamilo, Deogratius Mark, Harrison Mosha, Beatrice Dominic Pallangyyo, Michael Fihavango, Adedamola Oresanya, Patricia Ogunsanya, and P L KumarPublished Online:27 Sep 2021https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-21-1387-PDN


Banana (including plantain; Musa spp.) is an important vegetatively propagated food staple grown as a semi-perennial crop in fields and backyard gardens in Tanzania. Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD), caused by the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV, genus Babuvirus), is the most economically important viral disease of banana, infection of which results in severe stunting and reduction in fruit production by 90-100% within two seasons. The virus is spread by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa, and through vegetative propagation of infected sources. BBTV is an introduced virus first reported in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in the 1960s in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Since then, BBTV spread was confirmed in 15 countries in Central, Southern, and Western African regions but was not detected in any previous surveys in the East African sub-region. During banana pests and disease surveys conducted in December 2020 – January 2021 in Buhigwe District in the Kigoma Region of Tanzania revealed banana plants with typical BBTV symptoms (severe stunting, leaves with shortened petioles, chlorotic streaks, and yellow leaf margins) in several banana fields in Muhinda (lon. 29.78662, lat. -4.53672) and Mwayaya (lon. 29.8218, lat. -4.49203) villages. Most of the affected plantations were 5 to 15 years old. Leaf samples (N=21) from symptomatic (N=6) and asymptomatic (N=15) banana plants were collected and used for total DNA extraction and BBTV detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the primer pair BBTV-1 and BBTV-2 to amplify ~240 bp sequence of DNA-R encoding for core master replication initiator protein gene. All samples from symptomatic plants tested positive and asymptomatic plants were negative. To further confirm the virus identity, four samples, each from symptomatic (PCR positive) and asymptomatic (PCR negative) plants from Muhinda and Mwayaya villages, were tested by Triple Antibody Sandwich-Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (TAS-ELISA) using BBTV ELISA reagent set (Cat. # SRA24700-1000, Agdia, France) following the manufacturer’s protocol. Samples from symptomatic plants reacted positively in TAS-ELISA, and asymptomatic plants were negative. The 240-bp PCR product of two isolates was purified, and both strands were sequenced. A BLAST search of the nucleotide sequences (NCBI GenBank Acc.# MW711671 and MW711672) revealed 99% identity with DNA-R sequences of several other BBTV isolates from Africa (Acc. No# JF755994). Further analysis of the 240-bp nucleotide sequences with Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis using MEGA-X software has grouped the two BBTV sequence isolates with the SSA sub-clade of the South-Pacific group. To our knowledge, this is the first report of BBTV infecting bananas in Tanzania, and East Africa endowed with rich banana diversity and popular East African Highland banana clone. BBTV presents a new threat to banana production in this sub-region due to the high risk of further spread through vegetative propagation, traditional planting material exchange practices, and the ubiquitous banana aphid vector. This study warrants delimitation surveys to assess the extent of spread, with simultaneous efforts to raise awareness about BBTD recognition and control measures among banana growers, including eradicating infected mats and replanting with healthy planting material to recover banana production.

  • The American Phytopathological Society (APS)
  • 3352 Sherman Court, Suite 202, St. Paul, MN 55121 USA+1.651.454.7250+1.651.454.0766 APS

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Ava-Asaja demands drastic measures to prevent the advance of the insect

Trioza erytreae, the vector that transmits HLB, arrives in the Portuguese Algarve

The Valencian Association of Farmers (Ava-Asaja) demands that the Spanish Government and the European Union (EU) assess and implement drastic measures to prevent the advance of the Trioza erytreae insect, the vector of the Huanglongbing (HLB) disease -the most devastating disease for citrus in the world that is known as citrus greening or yellow dragon disease- after learning that this insect had already reached Algarve, in southern Portugal. This insect’s advance from the north and center of the Portuguese country to the citrus fruits of the Algarve increases the possibility that this transmitting vector and the HLB bacteria will reach the citrus farms of Huelva and the rest of Spain and Europe.

Female Trioza erytreae.

Ava-Asaja urged authorities to take all the scientific actions possible to stop the spread of this plague or, at least, to slow down the speed of its geographical progression. The agrarian organization highlighted an ambitious plan endowed with community funds aimed at promoting lines of research, breeding, and carrying out a massive release of highly effective parasitoids against HLB transmitting vectors.

In this regard, the Tamarixia drii predator has managed to reduce the presence of Trioza erytreae by more than 90% in the citrus farms investigated in the Canary Islands. Meanwhile, there are international studies on parasitoids that could also combat the other HLB vector, Diaphorina citri, which is even better adapted to the Mediterranean climate.

In the event that the bacteria arrive, the association urges the exploration of stronger complementary measures such as cutting down infested trees because, just as with Xylella fastidiosa, there still is no cure for this disease that has caused unaffordable losses for citrus growers and the uprooting of trees in the countries it has affected. Finally, Ava-Asaja asked the Spanish Government to work hand in hand with the Portuguese executive so that they are informed of the evolution of the situation and can act in the most coordinated and forceful way possible.

“The terrible news we’ve received about the HLB vector is further proof of the little seriousness and rigor with which the European Commission toys with agricultural pests and diseases. In recent years, they have been unable to prevent the entry and expansion of many pests and diseases coming via imports from third countries, such as Xylella fastidiosa, South African cotonet, or the almond wasp. Now we are facing the worst threat to the world’s citrus industry. In the absence of curative solutions, the best medicine for HLB is prevention. However, that may not be enough so we might have to take stronger measures,” stated the president of Ava-Asaja, Cristobal Aguado.

For more information:

Tel.: +34 963 804 606

Publication date: Mon 4 Oct 2021

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About PestLens


Thursday, August 19, 2021 Notification

First detections of the tobamovirus Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) in Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia
Source: Hortidaily, Slovenia Times
Event:  Detection In June and July of 2021, the tobamovirus Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) was detected in cultivated Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) plants in Switzerland and Austria. Additionally, molecular assays detected ToBRFV in a Capsicum annuum (pepper) seed lot in Slovenia. The infected seed lot was imported from the Czech Republic from seed originating from China. Some seeds from the infected lot were planted in Slovenia. Phytosanitary measures have been implemented in Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia. These are the first detections of ToBRFV in Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia. ToBRFV primarily infects S. lycopersicum and Capsicum spp. (pepper). ToBRFV has been reported from Egypt, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, China, and Mexico and has been detected in other parts of Europe and New Zealand. In the United States, ToBRFV has been detected in and eradicated from California. Tobamoviruses are transmitted mechanically and by seed, and ToBRFV can be transmitted by the bumble bee Bombus terrestris, which is not known to occur in the United States. The 2019 PPQ Prioritized Offshore Pest List includes ToBRFV as a pest of concern. References: Hortidaily. 2021. First report of Tomato brown rugose fruit virus in Austria and Switzerland. Hortidaily. August 9, 2021. Last accessed August 19, 2021, from https://www.hortidaily.com/article/9342639/first-report-of-tomato-brown-rugose-fruit-virus-in-austria-and-switzerland/. Slovenia Times. 2021. Tomato brown rugose fruit virus confirmed in Slovenia. Slovenia Times. August 13, 2021. Last accessed August 19, 2021, from https://sloveniatimes.com/tomato-brown-rugose-fruit-virus-confirmed-in-slovenia/.
Other PestLens articles about this pest:
First detections of the tobamovirus Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) in Norway, Hungary, and Bulgaria
First detection of the tobamovirus Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) in Malta
First detection of the tobamovirus Tomato brown rugose fruit virus in Belgium
First detection of the tobamovirus Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) in New Zealand
Disinfection of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) seeds from the tobamovirus Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) If you have any questions or comments for us about this article, please e-mail us at pestlens@usda.gov or log into the PestLens web system and click on “Contact Us” to submit your feedback.

First report of Malaysian fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae), in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Source: EPPO Bulletin
Event:  New Location Recently, Malaysian fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae), adults were observed emerging from postharvest Solanum aethiopicum (Ethiopian eggplant) fruits in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This is the first report of B. latifrons in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Bactrocera latifrons is primarily a pest of Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Bactrocera latifrons has been reported from other parts of Africa, Iran, and Asia. In the United States, it has been detected in and eradicated from California and has been reported from Hawaii. References: Ndayizeye, L. and C. K. Balangaliza. 2021. First report of Bactrocera latifrons Hendel in the Democratic Republic of Congo. EPPO Bulletin DOI: 10.1111/ epp.12746. Last accessed August 19, 2021, from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/epp.12746.
Other PestLens articles about this pest:
Detection of Malaysian fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae), in Italy
Assessment of Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and C. reticulata (tangerine) as hosts of Malaysian fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons, and melon fruit fly, B. cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)
New host records for Malaysian fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) If you have any questions or comments for us about this article, please e-mail us at pestlens@usda.gov or log into the PestLens web system and click on “Contact Us” to submit your feedback.

First report of the fungus Phaeoacremonium oleae (Sordariomycetes: Togniniales) in Italy
Source: Plant Disease
Event:  New Location From 2013 to 2019, cultivated Olea europaea (olive) plants in Italy exhibited shoot death, trunk and branch vascular discoloration, and wood necrosis. Morphological and molecular analyses, as well as fulfillment of Koch’s postulates, confirmed that the causal agent was the fungus Phaeoacremonium oleae (Sordariomycetes: Togniniales). This is the first report of P. oleae in Italy. Phaeoacremonium oleae infects O. europaea. Phaeoacremonium oleae has also been reported from South Africa and is not known to occur in the United States. References: Raimondo, M. L., F. Lops, and A. Carlucci. 2021. First report of Phaeoacremonium oleae and P. viticola associated with olive trunk diseases in Italy. Plant Disease DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-06-21-1198-PDN. Last accessed August 19, 2021, from https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/pdf/10.1094/PDIS-06-21-1198-PDN. If you have any questions or comments for us about this article, please e-mail us at pestlens@usda.gov or log into the PestLens web system and click on “Contact Us” to submit your feedback.

Four new scale species described from Colombia
Source: Zoosystema
Event:  New Description/Identification A recent publication describes four new scale species, Newsteadia andreae (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae), Distichlicoccus takumasae (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), Paraputo nasai (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), and Pseudococcus luciae (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), collected from roots of Coffea arabica (coffee) plants in Colombia. References: Caballero, A. 2021. Four new scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) associated with coffee roots in Colombia, South America, with identification keys for genera Newsteadia Green, 1902, Distichlicoccus Ferris, 1950, and Paraputo Laing, 1929. Zoosystema 43(18):341-363. Last accessed August 19, 2021, from https://bioone.org/journals/zoosystema/volume-43/issue-18. If you have any questions or comments for us about this article, please e-mail us at pestlens@usda.gov or log into the PestLens web system and click on “Contact Us” to submit your feedback.
To access previous PestLens articles, please log into PestLens.

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Japan finds fungicides on Taiwanese bananas

As Taiwan is increasing its export of pineapples to Japan due to China’s ban, due to high levels of fungicides, the Japanese ordered the removal of 750 boxes of Taiwanese bananas.

However, according to the US Department of Agriculture (CNA), the Agriculture and Food Administration of the Council of Agriculture (AFA) described the case as an isolated incident, which is unlikely to affect overall fruit exports to Japan.

A Japanese company called Wismettac Foods, Inc. announced on March 10 it was recalling Taiwan bananas due to the presence of 0.12 parts per million of the fungicide Pyraclostrobin, or six times the maximum level allowed.

AFA said a discovery of that type of fungicide was extremely rare. Wismettac had told consumers to return Taiwan bananas bought between March 1 and March 3. The Japanese had not sent the fruit back to Taiwan but destroyed them locally, according to AFA.

After a batch of Taiwanese bananas was turned away by a Japanese company on Wednesday (March 10) due to excessive quantities of the fungicide Pyraclostrobin, a toxicologist has suggested people wash bananas and oranges before eating them.

Taiwanese toxicologist suggests washing bananas
Director of Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital’s Department of Clinical Toxicology Yen Tsung-hai told reporters on Saturday that Pyraclostrobin is a fungicide with low toxicity that will not cause cancer.

Source: taiwannews.com.tw

Publication date: Mon 15 Mar 2021

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From PestNetfresh fruit logoffp



Chile: Medfly outbreak in Valparaiso region

March 13 , 2018

An outbreak of Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) has been discovered in Chile’s Valparaiso region, in a rural area of a commune that lies to the north of the capital Santiago.

Eight insects were found in traps in the commune of Los Andes, and authorities have now established a 7.2-kilometer control area. Additional traps have also been placed and contingency plans have been implemented.

There have been numerous Medfly detections in recent months, with authorities finding an insect in the eastern Santiago suburbof Las Condes in December, and the following month finding 16 Medflies in San Bernardo to the capital’s southwest.

The Agricultural and Livestock Service (SAG) said the recent detections had been made thanks to the surveillance network present throughout Chile.

“There was an opportune detection, thanks to the trapping system that the institution has throughout the country and thanks to our personnel who acted quickly,” SAG national director Angel Sartori said.

“To control and eradicate this outbreak we ask for collaboration from the people in facilitating the entry of inspectors into their homes to carry out the necessary treatments for these cases.

“In addition, we reiterate that people who travel outside of the country must not enter Chile with products that are not authorized by SAG, as they can put our agriculture at risk.”

The Medfly is one of the most damaging agricultural pests in the world, attacking more than 250 species of fruit and vegetables.




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Faw RISK aS REPT Cover

The document, ‘Pest Risk Assessment of the Fall Armyworm in Egypt’ has just been released by the Feed the Future Integrated Pest Management Lab at VA Tech. The document provides information on the following subjects:

FAW identification



Mortality and dispersal

Spread and establishment

Risk to other countries

Economic impact

Development of a management plan for the FAW in Egypt

The document can be accessed on the IPM IL website at:

Click to access Egypt-FAW-Risk-Assessment-12-14-17.pdf

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From the Aliens’ list/PestNet

From: Arne Witt <a.witt@cabi.org>
Date: 9 November 2017 at 20:25
Subject: [Aliens-L] FAW

New report reveals cost of Fall Armyworm and provides recommendations for control



The report, commissioned by the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID), reviews the current evidence of the potential impact of the pest and quantifies the likely economic effect on agricultural sectors in affected countries and regions if left unmanaged.

In the absence of any control methods, we estimate that the pest has the potential to cause huge maize yield losses in Africa and we expect it to spread throughout suitable habitats in mainland sub-Saharan Africa within the next few cropping seasons. Northern Africa and Madagascar are also at risk. This would clearly have a huge impact on food security and the achievement of SDG 2 (Zero Hunger).

Control of Fall Armyworm requires an integrated pest management (IPM) approach and immediate recommendations we make in the report include raising awareness on Fall Armyworm symptoms, early detection and control, and the creation and communication of a list of recommended, regulated pesticides and biopesticides to control the pest. Work must also start to assess which crop varieties can resist or tolerate Fall Armyworm. In the longer run national policies should promote lower risk control options through short term subsidies and rapid assessment and registration of biopesticides and biological control products.

To see the reports:

Download the 10 page summary of the evidence note

Download the full evidence note


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Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as Citrus greening, has been confirmed in Trinidad for the first time. The disease, which was detected on leaves from a lime tree in the north of the island, can cause devastating yield loss for Citrus growers and is regarded as one of the most important threats to global commercial and […]

via Citrus greening detected in Trinidad — The Plantwise Blog

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EPPO Reporting Service 2017 no. 6- Diseases

2017/117 First report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in Panama

In February 2016, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (associated with huanglongbing – EPPO A1 List) was detected for the first time in Panama. The disease was found on citrus the areas of Guabito and Las Tablas (district of Changuinoa, province of Bocas del Toro). The Ministry of Agriculture has declared a state of phytosanitary emergency and a national contingency plan has been elaborated to contain the disease and its vector, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae – EPPO A1 List). In July 2016, 101 citrus plants at the sites where the disease was found were destroyed (burnt). In addition to plant destruction and surveys, the development of a national certification scheme for the production of healthy planting material of citrus has been undertaken. The situation of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in Panama can be described as follows: Present, only in some areas (province of Bocas del Toro), under official control.

Source: INTERNET Gobierno de la República de Panamá – Noticias (2017-06-05) Más de B/. 1 millón invertirán Panamá y Taiwán en proyecto para control de la enfermedad de los cítricos HLB. http://mida.gob.pa/noticias_id_4875.html – Noticias (2017-06-02) Sector public y privado analizan normativa de viveros cítricos. http://mida.gob.pa/noticias_id_4495.html – Noticias (2016-08-16) MIDA y Embajada de China (Taiwan) coordinan proyectos técnicos. http://www.mida.gob.pa/noticias_id_3977.html – Noticias (2016-07-25) Decomisan plantones de cítricos en puesto de control de cuarentena en Hornitos. http://mida.gob.pa/noticias_id_3898.html – Noticias (2016-06-01) MIDA impulsa plan de emergencia para control de enfermedad en los cítricos. http://www.mida.gob.pa/noticias_id_3739.html República de Panamá. Ministerio de Desarrollo Agropecuario. Resolucion no. OAL039-ADM-2016 of 2016-02-03. Gaceta Oficial Digital, jueves 17 de marzo de 2016 no. 27991. http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/pan163996.pdf

Pictures: ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’. https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/LIBEAS
Additional key words: new record Computer codes: LIBEAS, DIAACI, PA

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