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Archive for the ‘Mites’ Category

Dear Colleagues

We are now just over 9 months from the start of the XV International Congress of Acarology (XV ICA2018) which will be staged from 2-8 September, 2018 in Antalya, Turkey (http://www.acarology.org/ica/ica2018/).

As the countdown continues, we are now just 1 month from the deadline for proposals for symposia and seminars in the following areas:

  • Taxonomy and systematics
  • Evolution and phylogeny
  • Ecology and behavior of mites
  • Ecology and behavior of ticks
  • Invasive species and biosecurity
  • Chemical control and resistance
  • Alternative pesticides
  • Biological control
  • Integrated pest management
  • Biodiversity
  • Dispersal of mites and ticks
  • Population dynamics
  • Agricultural acarology
  • Soil acarology
  • Aquatic acarology
  • Veterinary acarology
  • Medical acarology

If you are interested in convening a symposium or seminar, please contact the science secretary at ica2018turkey@gmail.com by 22 December, 2017 to register the topic and get the process underway.

Please check regularly for all updates on the congress website: http://www.acarology.org/ica/ica2018/

All the best

On behalf of the Organizing Committee
Prof. Dr. Sebahat K. Ozman-Sullivan
President, XV ICA 2018

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Broad mites in ornamental crops – Part 1: Challenges and treatments

Broad mites can be controlled using insecticides or biological control.

Photo 1. Broad mite. Photo by Bruce Watt, University of Main, Bugwood.org.

Photo 1. Broad mite. Photo by Bruce Watt, University of Main, Bugwood.org.

 

Western flower thrips and aphids have long been the most challenging insect pests in greenhouses. More recently, broad mites (Photo 1) have been posing a more serious threat for greenhouse growers. Broad mites are a potential threat to some of the most important Michigan floriculture crops. According to my previous article, “Attention scouts: Crops that are insect “magnets” in the greenhouse,” the top 10 plants that are attractive to broad mites are New Guinea impatiens (Photo 2), zonal geraniums, Thunbergia, Torenia, verbena, Rieger begonias, Scaevola, angel wing begonias, ivy geranium and buddleia.

So, why are broad mites so concerning? Broad mites are concerning because they are microscopic and are very difficult to see with the common 5x to 10x hand lens. You must send samples to a diagnostic lab or contact your local Michigan State University Extension floriculture educator for a positive diagnosis.

In addition, greenhouse scouts and growers usually notice the plant damage after the populations are already very high and the crops are unsalable. Often times, the damage to the upper leaves near the apical meristem is only noticeable 20 to 30 days after they began infesting the crop.

The greatest populations of broad mites when scouting crops are often not on the plants with the greatest amount of damage. By the time the damage is significant, broad mites have moved on to the neighboring plants with “fresh, new, tasty” tissue. Therefore, greenhouse scouts should actually sample the plants adjacent to those with heavy feeding damage.

broad mite damage

Photo 2. Broad mite damage on New Guinea Impatiens. Photo by Heidi Lindberg, MSU Extension.

The following products are recommendedfor broad mites: Avid, Akari, Judo, Pylon, SanMite, and 2% horticultural oil. For growers interested in using biological control, the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Photo 3), has been shown to be effective against broad mites. However, cuttings and propagules must be free of pesticide residue in order to effectively use biological control for broad mites. Contact your young plant or cutting supplier to learn about the plant’s pesticide history.

a. swirskii

Photo 3. Amblyseius swirskii. Photo by Evergreen Growers Supply.

One study in Belgium showed that using A. swirskii is actually more effective than the standard chemical treatment (Abamectin) in Belgium. When researchers released broad mites (P. latus) on Rhododendron plants, all of the following treatments were more effective than the weekly abamectin spray:

  • Three weekly releases of A. swirskii beginning in April
  • One release of A. swirskii during April
  • One release of A. swirskii during May
  • One release of A. swirskii with the additional food source Artemia during April
  • One release of A. swirskii with the additional food source Artemia during May

Greenhouse growers who are not getting adequate control of broad mites may want to consider a weekly release of A. swirskii. Contact your local biological control specialist or consultant to develop a strategy for preventative broad mite control.

For more information on the location of broad mites in the crop and about an intensive sampling program, read “Broad mites in ornamental crops – Part 2: Scouting and sampling.

The study referenced in this article is: Gobin, B., E. Pauwels, E. Mechant, and J. Audenaert. 2017. Integrated control of broad mites in ornamental plants under variable greenhouse conditions. IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 124: 125-130.

Related Articles

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Exclusive to Western Farm Press

What is in this article?:

  • There has never been a better time to implement integrated pest management for spider mites in almonds, says entomologist David Haviland of the University of California.
  • UC researchers have developed presence-absence monitoring thresholds to help almond growers understand exactly when they need to pull the trigger on treatment.

Feeding damage by spider mites to almond leaves. Photo by David Haviland.

 

There has never been a better time to implement integrated pest management (IPM)) for spider mites in almonds, according to entomology farm advisor David Haviland, University of California Cooperative Extension, Kern County.

A bevy of new reduced-risk, selective miticides have come on the market in recent years, and UC researchers have developed presence-absence monitoring thresholds to help almond growers understand exactly when they need to pull the trigger on treatment.

Haviland told a packed house at The Almond Conference last December that these new products have different modes of action, are easy on beneficial insects, and all are effective in the control of spider mites.

Despite this fact, pesticide use reports in recent years show a distinct trend toward preventive, prophylactic mite treatments in almonds. Perhaps growers are piggybacking onto early-season applications for other pests, or perhaps they are trying to stay ahead of mites to prevent flare-ups later in the season.

But Haviland said growers who spray at the first sign of mites might, in fact, be setting themselves up for problems later.

Food source

It is important for some mites to be present in the orchard early season to provide a food source for beneficials including six-spotted thrips, which, if allowed to thrive in the orchard, are an excellent natural biological control for spider mites. Allowing biocontrol organisms to get established, in fact, can reduce the risk of spider mite explosions later in the season.

Products containing abamectin, while inexpensive and effective on mites, are also known to kill six-spotted thrips and should be used cautiously if this predator is present in the orchard. In addition, pyrethroids and other broad-spectrum insecticides should be avoided until hull split unless they are absolutely necessary for leaffooted bug or other sporadic pests when no alternatives exist.

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FreshPlaza
http://www.freshplaza.com/article/132579/Spain-New-pest-threatens-Valencian-producers

valencia orange-11

The organisation AVA-Asaja has issued a statement reporting the presence of a new parasite in Valencia’s main citrus producing regions, which so far had only been detected in Andalusia and Alicante, and which causes damages to leaves and silvery spots on the fruit that prevent commercialisation.

It is a parasitic mite called Texas (Eutetranychus banksi), which was detected this summer and especially during the autumn months in some orange plantations in the county of La Safor. For their part, the technical services of AVA-Asaja have confirmed a surge in the Texas mite populations in other citrus producing areas, such as Ribera, Camp de Morvedre, L’Horta, Camp de Turia or Hoya de Buñol.

This parasite causes considerable damage to both leaves and the fruit. It leads to discolouring and deterioration of the leaves, causing them to fall in some cases, while the fruit is affected by silvery spots that can even prevent it from being sold in the fresh market.

“In addition to the losses that it will cause on the crops, it entails an extra cost for the producers affected, who will have to invest in acaricide treatments,” lamented the president of AVA-Asaja, Cristóbal Aguado.

In the Iberian Peninsula, the Texas mite was first detected in Portugal in 1999. Since then, the parasite has been spreading slowly. In Spain, it appeared for the first time in 2001 in several citrus plantations in the province of Huelva.

E banksii
Source: Valencia Fruits

Publication date: 12/16/2014

 

 

e_banks1

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Image

http://www.ekantipur.com/the-kathmandu-post/2014/05/02/onsaturday/back-to-basics/262360.html

Kathmandu Post

Image

By: PRAGATI SHAHI

KATHMANDU, MAY 02 –
Integrated Pest Management has been adopted by a growing number of organic farms in all districts of Nepal

Arjun Neupane, a farmer in Dhaibung, Rasuwa, owns a farm that’s all organic. His prize produce is tomatoes, and they grow in a plastic-roofed shed that’s surrounded on all sides by marigold plants. The rest of his farmland, used for growing cauliflower and spinach, is spotted with plastic drums that house a slurry of buffalo dung and urine mixed with titepati, neem and sisnu leaves. It’s the employing of slurries of this kind that’s at the heart of a farming method called Integrated Pest Management (IPM)—a method that’s been adopted by a growing number of organic farms in all districts of Nepal.

The IPM philosophy is a simple one: It’s a way of using, as much as possible, plants (mostly those that grow in the wild) and animal waste to keep pest numbers down and fertilise the soil at the same time. The buffalo urine in the slurry, which Neupane ferries by the bucketloads to his vegetable beds, acts as a fertiliser—by adding nutrients such as ammonia in its natural form to the soil—and the plants used in the slurry kill germs and keep away animals such as rodents, with their bitterness. Live plants, too–such as the marigold plants around Neupane’s greenhouse—can be marshalled as a defensive front: in Neupane’s case, they keep at bay the nematodes, a kind of worm, which would otherwise prey on his tomatoes.

IPM took off in the late 90s in Nepal, with the government’s encouraging farmers to make use of the method as an alternative to depending on chemical fertlisers, which are harsher on the soil and whose use over time can lead to the land’s turning effete. The government knew that it had to wean the farmers off chemical fertilisers if they wanted to preserve the farmlands’ soil. The advent of globalisation had by then seen a marked increase in Nepali farmers’ switching to various types of chemical fertilisers and pesticides, which had become readily available in all markets across the country. And the farming sector had transformed from one which primarily used organic fertilisers and biological agents to one that relied increasingly on fertilisers that degraded the soil quality of the farms and which furthermore had untold adverse effects on the environment and in turn on public health.

Most farmers who use only chemical fertilisers are locked in a vicious cycle. The chemical fertilisers produce better yields, and as most other farmers now opt for using chemicals (even as they further degrade their land), they have to keep up if they want to compete in the marketplace. Furthermore, many of them have also taken to using industrial-strength pesticides to keep away pests—such as insects, disease-bearing pathogens, weeds, rodents, and mites—which are the major constraints to increasing agricultural production and which can cause productivity losses of up to 40 percent. This increase in the use of chemical pesticides ends up not only upsetting the natural balance of chemicals of the soils in the fields, but also leads to an increase in the populations of secondary pests.

It was to help those farmers who wanted to get back to using biopesticides that the concept of the IPM approach was pushed by the government. The first phase of IPM farming in Nepal was launched just before the turn of the century by the Department of Plant Resources, under the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. The government was aided in its venture by various developmental partners and together they helped set up the practice for farmers in various districts, including Jhapa, Morang, Bara, Chitwan, Kapilvastu, Bardiya, Banke, Kailali, Ilam, Kavre, Syangja, Surkhet, Dadeldhura, Tanahu, Dhading, Mustang and Manang.

Ironically, the government had to sell the idea as a ‘modern’ method of farming, even though local versions of IPM were what the farmers used to work with before the farmers switched wholesale to chemical fertilisers. Wood ash, for example, has been widely used for pest control in west Nepal for generations. Today, the national IPM Programme seeks to teach the farmers how to find their way back, says Yubak Dhoj GC, a government official and former coordinator at the Plant Protection Directorate. To help farmers make the switch, the government and various non-governmental agencies have set up IPM farmer schools all across Nepal, in which farmers such as Neupane learn the science of using botanical pesticides, which can be made from more than 50 plant species readily available in Nepal: plants such as neem, marigold, titepati, sisnu, garlic and timur are used in IMP to ward off pests such as the cabbage butterfly larvae, hairy caterpillars, cutworms, red ants, termites and aphids.

Today, it is estimated that around 11,000 farmers in 17 districts have completely adopted IPM techniques and that the number is increasing at the rate of more than 10 percent each year. Thus there are quite a few farmers who are getting sold on the idea, but there still remains the challenge of helping the IPM farmers compete with those who still haven’t given up the use of chemical fertilisers. The IPM model requires more man-hours in the field; furthermore, as Neupane, says, it’s difficult for IPM farmers like him to compete with farmers who use chemical fertilisers, andwhose tomatoes look larger, redder and juicier than his.

According to GC, the IPM programme is at a crossroads now. He says the government has to play a larger role in helping farmers such as Neupane. At present, the agricultural produce grown using chemical fertilisers and the IPM methods are competing in the same markets. The government doesn’t have the mechanism in place to certify certain products as being organic. If that were to happen, Neupane thinks that he could sell his tomatoes to hotels in Dhunche, where the tourists who prefer organic produce could seek vegetables like the ones he grows.

In cities like Kathmandu, there are already many farmers who are able to sell their products in the niche markets that the organic farmers, who employ IPM, have carved for themselves. For the farmers outside the Valley, the main draw of IPM farming is that the soil will remain fertile in the long run. These farmer can only compete with those who use chemical fertilisers, says GC, if the government were to provide subsidies and help improve market access for them. “We have been successful in involving the farmers in the IPM approach but have failed to improve the accessibility to the market for their products. Thus it’s still difficult for most of them to benefit from the agriculture practice they are adopting,” says GC.

Posted on : 2014-05-03 08:15

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Coconut mite IPM in Oman

Integrated effort to tackle coconut mite

Monday 10th, February 2014 / 23:30 Written by  

in Local
Integrated effort to tackle coconut mite

OBSERVER SPOTLIGHT — By Kaushalendra Singh — SALALAH — The Agriculture Research Station Salalah has decided to put concerted and integrated efforts to tackle the issue of coconut mite. After making good progress under a five-year programme, the Research Station has extended the programme for one more year, as an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) plan is in place with emphasis on biological control using predators etc. The mite problem is being tackled strategically by understanding the coconut mites’ ecology, distribution and business as also by developing good plant protection and production practices.

1392042516300903900Among other methods being adopted by the researchers is plantation of 11 new varieties of coconut. These new varieties were brought from Cote de’Ivoire (South Africa) and planted during the last Khareef season. With this the agriculture scientists are hoping good quality coconuts in terms of quality and quantity in the years to come, as these varieties of coconut are mite resistant. In the meantime, the agriculture research centre has successfully tackled the mite issue by adopting scientific measures and raising awareness among the farmers.

According to Anwar Ahmed Bait Fadhil, “We did intensive research after the coconut mite attack and found the varieties from Cote de’Ivoire mite resistant and comparatively better in farm output. The success rate of these plants is also encouraging,” he said. “We are trying to convince the farmers about new methods through presentations, direct contact, workshops and seminars. We take part in programmes, activities and awareness drives for farmers. The experts from the ministry explain ways to improve farm productivity, proper use of fertlisers and pesticides as also tackling the problems of coconut mite and papaya mealybug,” said Bait Fadhil.

1392042516320904100Anwar put emphasis on the fact that the mite attack on coconut was limited only to the fruit bark and not at all on the pulp and its milk. “It is a kind of cosmetic issue with the coconut, as the fruit remains tasty, sweet and healthy despite the mite attack.” The coconut mite or Aceria guerreronis Keifer attacks young fruits of the coconut palm, to which it is almost exclusively confined.  The mites are small but they often build up extremely large and dense populations. They use the bark as their food which causes scarring and distortion of the fruits and in some cases cause premature fruit drop. The mite was first reported in Gurrero, Mexico and now found in most of the coconut producing areas in South Asia, Central and South Africa, including the Gulf region. In Dhofar it was reported in the late 1980s. “Agriculture scientists from all the affected countries are sharing information with each other to handle the issue in a positive manner,” said Anwar.

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