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Archive for the ‘Mechanical control’ Category

Uwhi trial eradicating pest weeds with woven mats – and reconnecting with tūpuna 

Benn Bathgate15:07, Feb 28 2022

The Uwhi mats being laid at Lake Rotoma on Wednesday, a continuation of a weed eradication project that has shown promising signs at other lakes in the Rotorua region.
STEPHEN PARKERThe Uwhi mats being laid at Lake Rotoma on Wednesday, a continuation of a weed eradication project that has shown promising signs at other lakes in the Rotorua region.

Using an 800-year-old mātauranga Māori solution to tackle a 70-year-old pest weed problem appears to be working – and it’s also helping weavers into jobs and connecting people with their ancestors.

Back in December, harakeke weed mats, called uwhi were laid at sites on the bottom of Lake Rotoiti and Lake Tarawera in a collaborative project from Te Arawa Lakes Trust, Toitū Te Whenua Land Information New Zealand and Te Roopū Raranga Ki Rotorua.

The idea was simple.

The woven mats suppress the pest weed, preventing parts breaking off and establishing elsewhere, and also block the photosynthesis process.


A 70-year-old problem is being tackled with an 800-year-old mātauranga Māori solution just outside Rotorua.

Seeds from the native weeds, however, are able to grow up through the mats and, over time, hopefully replace their pest competitors.

Te Arawa Lakes Trust divers have been monitoring the project and on Wednesday a third tranche of uwhi is set to be laid in Lake Rotomā.

Lead diver Corey O’Neill said the team is confident the positive results they have seen so far will be sustained, and hopefully increased over time.

“We started the monitoring process with no expectations. We had an idea based on scientific knowledge of how the uwhi may work, but we have nonetheless been thrilled to see the early trends indicating uwhi are an effective weed control measure.

“This centuries-old solution to a new-age problem is testament to the pivotal role mātauranga Māori can play alongside western science.”

O’Neill says placing uwhi in Lake Rotomā will allow divers to assess its effectiveness against pest weeds in a unique location.

“With different topography to our current two sites, as well a distinctive pest weed profile, Lake Rotomā will add depth and breadth to our monitoring results and will give more credence to the effectiveness of uwhi.”

Te Arawa Lakes Trust lead diver Corey O’Neill, speaking in December at the uwhi laying at Lake Rotoma.
MARK TAYLOR/STUFFTe Arawa Lakes Trust lead diver Corey O’Neill, speaking in December at the uwhi laying at Lake Rotoma.

Te Arawa Lakes Trust biosecurity manager William Anaru says the trial highlights the advantages of genuine collaboration between iwi and government agencies.

“Through the dedication and hard work of everyone involved, we have been able to carry out a mātauranga Māori trial that is creating a positive difference in our lakes.”

The positive effects of the uwhi project are being felt beyond the lakes of Rotorua, however.

Many of the hand-picked weavers creating the uwhi had lost their jobs due to Covid-19, and the project has provided them with not only employment, but the chance to give back to the community.

Te Roopū Raranga Ki Rotorua Kaitakawaenga Judy Howe-Wiperi said working on the uwhi has been cathartic for her, having poured her blood, sweat and tears into the kaupapa from day one.

“When we were approached to collaborate on this kaupapa I was going through a tough time in my personal life.

Judy Howe-Wiperi said working on the uwhi has helped her reconnect with her tūpuna.
SUPPLIEDJudy Howe-Wiperi said working on the uwhi has helped her reconnect with her tūpuna.

“Uwhi gave me a purpose and I poured all my pain and heartache into creating something that would go out and make a positive difference in our world.”

Howe-Wiperi said uwhi has created the potential for sustainable work for the weavers who have had their lives turned upside down by Covid.

“Every single weaver in this group has been helped by the uwhi kaupapa and now we are ready to share our knowledge and skills to help other people, not just in Aotearoa, but the world.

“We have already had inquiries from Tūwharetoa, Ngāi Tahu and even officials from Australia looking for similar solutions for their lakes.

“I just know our tūpuna would be looking down on us right now saying ‘wow’; This uwhi trial has helped many of us reconnect with our tūpuna in a way we hadn’t before.”

Te Arawa Lakes Trust biosecurity manager William Anaru says the trial highlights the advantages of genuine collaboration between iwi and government agencies.

“Through the dedication and hard work of everyone involved, we have been able to carry out a mātauranga Māori trial that is creating a positive difference in our lakes.”

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Disease affecting coconut crops brought under control

Wednesday, December 15, 2021 – 01:00Print EditionLocalP.P.G. Sugathadasa Thihagoda Group Corr.

The disease affecting coconut cultivations in the Matara district has been brought under control, Coconut Cultivation Board (CCB) Matara Regional Manager Leelananda Gabbadage said.

Nearly 300,000 fruit bearing coconut trees in the Matara district were cut down due the spread of the disease in the district, officials attached to Matara District office of the Coconut Cultivation Board said. Each owner of these trees has been compensated at the rate of Rs. 3,000 per tree, officials stated. Cutting down of diseased trees and banning the transport of all raw materials relating to coconut products from and through the affected areas has made a positive impact in controlling the spread of the disease, they said.

Officials also instructed cultivators and landowners as to the urgent need of informing the officials responsible if they notice any symptoms of the disease in their cultivations. Every endeavour possible is currently being made by the Coconut Cultivation Board to prevent the spread of this disease, Gabbadage added. EmailFacebookTwitterPinterest0WhatsAppViberMessengerTags: Print Edition

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2020 Integrated Pest Management Research, Data and Findings: A Look Back

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Integrated Pest Management Innovation Lab

Feb 09, 2021

Photograph of fall armyworm
Fall Armyworm.

2020 was a year like no other — researchers in search of answers to some of the world’s most pressing questions were forced to think outside the box when trials and experiments were put on hold due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Globally, communities are facing food insecurity challenges more intensely than ever before, emphasizing the ongoing value of research that looks at the sustainable production of crops. Despite a challenging year, Virginia Tech’s Feed the Future Integrated Pest Management Innovation Lab (IPM IL) and its partners aim to highlight some of the 2020 research outputs that will continue to help foster improved livelihoods around the world.

Fall armyworm

Tuta absoluta

Crop protection

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IAPPS Region X Northeast Asia Regional Center (NEARC)

Present committee members

Dr. Izuru Yamamoto, Senior Advisor

Dr. Noriharu Umetsu, Senior Advisor

Dr. Tsutomu Arie, a representative of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, the chair of Region X

Dr. Tarô Adati, a representative of Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology

Dr. Hiromitsu Moriyama, a representative of Pesticide Science Society of Japan, the secretary general of Region X

Dr. Rie Miyaura, a representative of The Weed Science Society of Japan

The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Pesticide Science Society of Japan became official partners of IYPH2020 by FAO of UN and Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) of Japan and endeavored to educate the society on plant protection. https://www.maff.go.jp/j/syouan/syokubo/keneki/iyph/iyph_os.html

Annual activities related to IAPPS especially to IPM of plant diseases, insects and weeds, and plant regulation (from April 2020 to March 2021)

The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

2020 Kanto District Meeting, Online; Sep 21–22, 2020

2020 Kansai District Meeting, Online; Sep 21–22, 2020

2020 Tohoku District Meeting, Online; Oct 12–14, 2020

2020 Hokkaido District Meeting, Online; Oct 15, 2020

2020 Kyushu District Meeting, Online; Nov 24–26, 2020

2021 Annual Meeting, Online; Mar 17–19, 2021

Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology (JSAEZ)

65th Annual Meeting, online, March 23-26, 2021

28th Annual Research Meeting of the Japan-ICIPE Association, online, March 25, 2021

Pesticide Science Society of Japan

37rd Study Group Meeting of Special Committee on Bioactivity of Pesticides, online, Sep 18, 2020

40th Symposium of Special Committee on Agricultural Formulation and Application, Yokohama, Kanagawa; Oct 15–16, 2020 (Cancelled due to the spread of COVID-19)

43th Annual Meeting of Special Committee on Pesticide Residue Analysis, online, Nov. 5–6, 2020

46th Annual meeting, Fuchu, Tokyo and Online, March 8–10, 2021

The Weed Science Society of Japan (WSSJ)

2020 Annual Meeting, The Weed Science Society of Kinki, Online; Dec 5, 2020

35th Symposium of Weed Science Society of Japan, Online; Dec 12, 2020

2020 Annual Meeting, Kanto Weed Science Society, Online; Dec 22, 2020

22th Annual Meeting, The Weed Science Society of Tohoku, Japan, Online; Feb 25, 2021

2020 Study Group Meeting of Weed Utilization and Management in Small Scale Farming, Online; Feb 26, 2021

Hono-Kai (means, Meeting who are appreciating agriculture)

35th Hono-Kai Symposium was cancelled due to the epidemic of COVID-19

Japan Biostimulants Association

rd Symposium, Online; Nov 2–30, 2020

Nodai Research Institute

2020-1 Biological Control Group Seminar, Setagaya; Tokyo; Jun 16, 2020 (Cancelled due to the epidemic of COVID-19)

2020-2 Biological Control Group Seminar, online, Nov 13, 2020

2021-1 Biological Control Group Seminar, online, Jun 15, 2021

2021-2 Biological Control Group Seminar, online, Nov 9, 2021

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Weed Control Isn’t Just in a Jug

Chemical, Mechanical and Physical Weed Control is the Future

11/8/2021 | 8:28 AM CST

Matt Wilde

By  Matthew Wilde , Progressive Farmer Crops Editor

To control herbicide-resistant weeds, farmers need to consider all eradication methods, including pulling or cutting weeds. This family was pulling weeds in an organic soybean field, but hand weeding should also be considered in herbicide-tolerant and non-genetically modified soybeans. (DTN/Progressive Farmer photo by Jim Patrico)
To control herbicide-resistant weeds, farmers need to consider all eradication methods, including pulling or cutting weeds. This family was pulling weeds in an organic soybean field, but hand weeding should also be considered in herbicide-tolerant and non-genetically modified soybeans. (DTN/Progressive Farmer photo by Jim Patrico)

ANKENY, Iowa (DTN) — Mike Morgan has waged an all-out war on weeds for years in his Piggott, Arkansas, fields. He may be finally winning.

The main enemy is pigweed, particularly Palmer amaranth. The key to victory, Morgan said, is doing whatever it takes to conquer the weed seedbank and not settling for good-enough control. He’s found that a combination of effective herbicides with multiple modes of action and hiring chopping crews to remove weed escapees and burn them is effective.

But the war is far from over. “The fields are pretty clean now, but we’re still having weed trouble on field edges and seeing occasional escapes,” Morgan said.

Morgan knows herbicides alone no longer provide effective weed control. And in a year when many major herbicide active ingredients are in short supply or overly expensive, non-chemical solutions may be more important than ever.

Not long ago, Morgan was spending $100,000 or more annually on chopping crews that worked almost all summer to rid fields of Palmer amaranth because it threatened his livelihood. This year, he only spent about $10,000 to go after weeds manually because they weren’t as prevalent.

“If you don’t take care of pigweeds (Palmer amaranth), they will take care of you,” Morgan said. “You can see where they have totally taken over farms. We fight pigweed tooth and nail to keep the numbers down so they don’t explode.”

More than 250 weed species have developed resistance to herbicides, according to the Weed Science Society of America. If left unchecked, weeds may slice yields by depriving row crops of water, nutrients and sunlight.

Palmer amaranth and waterhemp, both members of the pigweed family, are particularly nasty and tough to control. Each is a prolific weed seed producer known to foil up to six and seven herbicide sites of action, respectively.

HOLISTIC APPROACH

Weed scientists urge farmers to adopt a holistic approach to weed control. This includes herbicides, hand weeding, cover crops, weed seed destruction, tillage and more.

Tom Barber, a University of Arkansas Extension weed scientist, said mechanical and cultural weed-control practices may not be cheap and easy, unlike when one pass of glyphosate did the trick. If farmers want to keep weeds at bay and preserve the efficacy of herbicides that still work, he said they need to consider multiple control methods.

“Farmers have to get out of the mentality that herbicides are the only answer,” Barber said. “Ever since glyphosate resistance became an issue, we made a huge shift in our education programs to focus on cultural practices to reduce weed numbers. Some farmers don’t want to do that because it costs more money, and it’s not as easy.”

COVER CROPS

Cover crops such as cereal rye and hairy vetch are Larry Steckel’s top nonchemical recommendations to fight herbicide-resistant weeds. Cover crops terminated just before or after planting can reduce Palmer amaranth infestations by 50%, according to the University of Tennessee weed specialist.

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Possible tool in the war on resistant weeds

Wallaces Farmer

Prashant JhaRedekop Seed Control Unit harvesting soybeans

NO RESISTANCE TO STEEL: Iowa State University is among the leading places in the U.S. to put the Redekop Seed Control Unit to the test — including on a field in Story County, Iowa, and in Harrison County, Iowa, on a field owned by Iowa Pest Resistance Management Program participant Larry Buss.For the second year, ISU is testing a Redekop Seed Control Unit on Iowa farm fields to determine the economic feasibility of harvest weed-seed control.

Tyler Harris | Oct 25, 2021

Larry Buss often says, “I haven’t seen any weeds yet that are resistant to steel.” Steel can refer to preplant tillage, cultivation — or in more recent cases, mechanical control of harvested weed seed.

Ever since Palmer amaranth was identified in Harrison County, Iowa, in 2013, Buss has been vigilant in doing his part to slow the spread of herbicide resistant weeds in Iowa and across the continent — spreading the word with national organizations like the Weed Science Society of America and Entomological Society of America, and at international events like the Manitoba Agronomists Conference and the Soil and Water Conservation Society’s Annual Conference.

A Redekop unit being tested on 500 acres of soybeans in Story County last year to kill waterhemp seed at harvest
REDUCED WEED SEED BANK: A Redekop unit was tested on 500 acres of soybeans in Story County last year to kill waterhemp seed at harvest. “We had about 90% or more kill efficacy for waterhemp — and that was a multiple herbicide-resistant waterhemp population in soybean,” says Prashant Jha, ISU associate professor and Extension weed specialist. (Photo by Prashant Jha)

These efforts grew with the launch of the Iowa Pest Resistance Management Program in 2017. Since then, Buss has collaborated with Iowa State University researchers, agronomists, landowners, crop consultants, ag lenders and commodity organizations to monitor the spread of resistance on farms in Harrison County, and test different practices and herbicide programs to control weeds like Palmer amaranth, waterhemp, marestail and giant ragweed.

Most recently, this involves harvest weed-seed techniques — more specifically, using a Redekop Seed Control Unit. Designed to be used with a John Deere combine, the Redekop unit uses high-impact mills to break the seed through physical destruction as it comes out of the back of the combine, killing the seed and preventing germination. According to Saskatoon, Saskatchewan-based Redekop, the unit can destroy as much as 98% or more of weed-seed germination during harvest. The unit also allows the operator to turn it on and off on the go.

“I have a few weeds at a field by Dunlap, so we’re going to test it up there,” Buss says. “Then, we are going to get a sample of the weed seed behind the combine to see if the unit helps with germination destruction.”ADVERTISING

Off to a good start

Iowa is one of the first states the unit has been tested in the U.S. — it was tested by Prashant Jha, an ISU associate professor and Extension weed specialist in 2020 at a farm in Story County.

Jha notes one Redekop unit was tested on 500 acres of soybeans in Story County last year, with promising results for controlling waterhemp seed at harvest. However, he notes the study is ongoing.

“We had about 90% or more kill efficacy for waterhemp — and that was a multiple-herbicide-resistant waterhemp population in soybean,” Jha says. “We don’t know what level of resistance those waterhemp plants had, but they had survived multiple applications, and that’s why it made perfect sense to do some harvest weed-seed control. The same is true in Harrison County — they have populations resistant to Group 9 as well as Group 2 [herbicides] and most likely PPO and HPPD inhibitors.”

This year, after running the seed destructor in soybean fields, Jha will monitor the changes in weed seed bank density over time by collecting soil core samples in the fall, and then counting weed emergence in the following spring.

“We will estimate how much of the initial weed-seed bank has emerged and how much has survived herbicide applications, and how many weeds are present at harvest and the weed-seed-kill efficacy of the Redekop seed unit,” Jha says.

Economic feasibility

Of course, one of the big questions to be answered is: At what point does it become economically feasible to use harvest weed-seed control? Jha notes while the Redekop unit costs about $70,000, it will take time to determine how long it takes to pay for the machine by reducing the weed-seed bank.

Waterhemp
PROBLEM WEEDS: Since 2017, growers, agronomists, Extension educators and other stakeholders in Harrison County have studied herbicide resistance in weeds as part of the Iowa Pest Resistance Management Program. This includes some key problem weeds in the area: Palmer amaranth (pictured), waterhemp, giant ragweed and marestail. (Photo by Bob Hartzler)

“It won’t happen in one year, but we expect at least a 90% reduction in the seed bank,” he says. “There will be some header/thresher loss — probably close to 25% to 30%. Kevin Bradley at the University of Missouri has seen close to 25% header loss, and some of the weed seeds are getting shattered. We had close to 30% to 33% header loss last year. It’s not stand-alone, but we expect that, of the remaining 67% to 70% seed going inside the unit, 95% will be killed.”

And there are other factors — like the potential savings on herbicide application costs in the future.

“There are millions of dollars right now going into managing herbicide resistance in corn and soybeans,” Jha adds.

“If you calculate the cost of three applications in a season — burndown, pre- and postresidual — can we cut that cost by reducing the weed-seed bank in a three- to four- year time frame, and increase the longevity of the herbicide? More importantly, we are quickly running out of herbicide options because of multiple-herbicide-resistant waterhemp and Palmer amaranth populations,” Jha says.

Last-resort option

Larry Buss notes that for the time being, the best method for weed control is to keep them from competing with crops during the growing season, by controlling them upfront and preventing them from going to seed and expanding the weed-seed bank.

Larry Buss speaks at a field day
SPREADING THE WORD: Larry Buss speaks at a field day as part of a Weed Science Society of America and Entomological Society of America event in this 2019 photo. Buss notes that growers in Harrison County and across Iowa are getting the message that weeds must be controlled early on with a full rate and multiples modes of action. (Photo by Ethan Stoetzer)

“I’m not going to spend money on it yet, because I would prefer to invest it in a better sprayer or a more robust herbicide program. If herbicide resistance continues to get worse, we can use harvest weed-seed methods to significantly reduce the weed-seed bank, because it’s going to wipe out the weed mechanically,” he adds. “Weeds won’t be resistant to steel, so you can kill it with preplant tillage, cultivation — or you kill the seed with the Redekop Seed Control Unit. But before we do that, I think farmers will look to control weeds upfront so they don’t compete with the crop.”

And, Buss notes the outreach efforts of the Pest Resistance Management Program are paying off — while herbicide resistance continues to be a challenge, people are aware it’s a problem and are taking steps to slow its spread.

“I’m going to pat ourselves, in Harrison County and the Iowa Pest Resistance Management Program, on the back,” he says. “Because I think we’re getting the message out that we’ve got to control weeds early on with a full rate of herbicide, and multiples modes of action.”

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The prototype will be presented at Macfrut by the Italian company Bagioni

How to weed organic asparagus mechanically

A system that keeps the asparagus field clean of weeds, through mechanical weeding, without increasing costs is Aurenzo Bagioni’s latest solution which will be presented at Macfrut, during the Asparagus Days.

The Forlì-based company Bagioni, which already produces asparagus harvesting machines, will present this new concept in Rimini, Italy. This accessory is mounted on the back of the asparagus harvesting machines and is particularly aimed at organic farms but can also be used by those who cultivate using conventional methods. Basically, the concept is based on a weeder that allows the central part (30-50 centimeters) – where the asparagus grows – to remain free, but moves the soil laterally at each harvesting operation, to an adjustable depth of 1-3 centimeters. You don’t have to do any extra work, but the device works when you harvest.

Given that the harvest takes place every day, the idea was to attach a weeder to the back of the machine, keeping the central 50 centimeters free for the asparagus to grow. This daily operation should keep the soil moving and prevent the grass from growing.

We had already seen this prototype in June 2021, but Bagioni asked not to announce it until the end of August, because he was thinking of filing a patent.

“This concept is being presented with the aim of understanding whether the idea is interesting to customers and then possibly start building it,” concluded the owner.

For more information: 
Bagioni Alfiero Snc 
Via Bologna 100
47121 Forlì – Italy
+39 0543 703993
bagioni.aurenzo@libero.it
www.asparagus.it  

Publication date: Thu 26 Aug 2021

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Weed electrocution research sparks interest as herbicide resistance impedes current methods

July 29, 2021 at 4:00 a.m.COURTESY PHOTO The United Soybean Board, Missouri Soybean Merchandising Council and the Weed Zapper company are partners in this weed electrocution research project.

COLUMBIA — Move over, herbicides. There’s a new sheriff in town. And he’s toting some powerful guns loaded with electricity to kill weeds.

This shocking new method of weed control was demonstrated at the 2021 Pest Management Field Day at the University of Missouri Bradford Research Center in Columbia.

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As more weeds develop resistance to herbicides, electrocution may be the weed management approach of the future, says MU Extension weed scientist Kevin Bradley. MU graduate student Haylee Schreier has studied weed electrocution in row crops for the past two years under Bradley’s direction.

The is of special interest to Bradley because it might be the answer to Missouri’s growing waterhemp problem. A prolific producer of seeds, waterhemp is Missouri’s No. 1 weed problem and one of 14 weeds that are herbicide-resistant.

Two brothers in Illinois with backgrounds in farming and engineering designed The Weed Zapper machine. A different pair of brothers purchased the technology and manufacture Weed Zappers at a plant in Sedalia, Mo.

The Weed Zapper model used in MU research has a copper boom that attaches to the front of a tractor. Driven by a PTO, it hits weeds with 15,000 volts of electricity from a 110,000-watt generator on the back of the tractor. Models cost between $42,000 and $72,000.

Metal wheels are grounded, and booms adjust to different heights. Tractor speed is about 2-4 miles per hour, Bradley says. Weed kill is best at lower speeds and is even more effective on some of the more challenging weeds when used at seven-day intervals in late summer.

Schreier’s data shows that by the end of the season there is almost complete control of giant ragweed, common ragweed, marestail and waterhemp. It is slightly less effective on grasses.

The growth stage of soybean and the degree of contact that the boom makes with the foliage influences soybean injury. Soybean yield loss is possible if the boom makes constant contact with the soybean canopy at growth stages R3 or later.

In addition to killing weeds, electrocution also affects the viability of surviving weed seeds. The most impact is seen in waterhemp, where about 65% of seeds become nonviable.

Electrocution is not new to the weed management world, says Bradley. Sugar beet growers in North and South Dakota have been trying this method since the 1950s and 1960s.

The United Soybean Board, Missouri Soybean Merchandising Council and the Weed Zapper company are partners in this project.

Learn more about Weed Zappers at http://www.TheWeedZapper.com.

Weed electrocution research shows promising results for weed management, especially in waterhemp, Missouri’s No. 1 weed problem. The Weed Zapper attaches to a tractor and kills in-row weeds with high-voltage electricity. Photo by Linda Geist.

For more than 100 years, University of Missouri Extension has extended university-based knowledge beyond the campus into all counties of the state. In doing so, Extension has strengthened families, businesses and communities. MU Extension news: extension.missouri.edu/news.

Print Headline: Weed electrocution research sparks interest as herbicide resistance impedes current methods

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Cedar fight goes across fence and state lines

TAGS: CONSERVATIONLIVESTOCKCurt ArensA few members of the Bristow, Neb. area crew pose in front of the trucks they purchased to help on prescribed burnsCRUCIAL CREW: A few members of the Bristow, Neb., area crew pose in front of the trucks they bought to help on prescribed burns. Over the past eight years, this group has burned more than 30,000 acres in their fight to reclaim grasslands from invasive eastern red cedar.Working together has been a successful formula for Nebraska and South Dakota advocates of prescribed fire.

Curt Arens | Dec 23, 2020

Gathering landowners to work together on prescribed burn projects has been a winning model in the successful defeat of eastern red cedar encroachment on grazing lands. Normally, prescribed burn associations work across fence lines with neighboring landowners.

Over the past decade, eastern members of the Niobrara Valley Prescribed Fire Association, covering much of north-central Nebraska, have not only reached across fence lines, but also state lines into neighboring South Dakota, to beat the invasion of ERC.

Related: New strategy in battle against invasive cedars

It started in 2010 when Jerald Dennis, Bristow, Neb., sheared ERC trees in a large portion of family-owned grasslands on the south shore of Lake Francis Case in South Dakota, behind Fort Randall Dam. He piled the dead cedar trees for curing. In 2011, Dennis deferred grazing on the tract, to grow fuel for the prescribed burn he was planning the following spring.

“It took an entire year to plan the burn, coordinating between five landowners, four government agencies along with local law enforcement and fire departments,” Dennis explains. On that burn with Dennis, Dave Steffen from Gregory, S.D., and other interested landowners in the area watched as observers.

Dennis has worked at Nebraska State Bank in Bristow for nearly 40 years. Most of that time, he has also served on the Bristow Fire Department. His family owns about 2,000 acres of pasture in both states, so he’s been involved in prescribed burning for the past 13 years. The Prescribed Fire Association that Dennis works with has conducted burns on just over 30,000 acres since 2012.

They normally develop their burn schedule at a meeting each February, so 10 to 12 people can plan to be involved with each burn. The local members of the association bought two Army surplus pickup trucks to transport skid water pumping units with 250-gallon tanks, hoses and a reel they borrow from the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission.

The burn near Fort Randall encompassed 3,145 acres. “We had a well-seasoned crew of 12 from Nebraska working that burn,” Dennis says. “It also helped that we had Lake Francis Case to the north and a highway to the south.”

Steffen watched the Nebraska crew and became interested in conducting more prescribed burns locally. “The following year, Steffen and a few other interested parties came down from South Dakota and attended our local meeting, and a few controlled burns,” Dennis says. “We collaborated on burns in South Dakota by helping that group develop burn plans and assisting with the burns. Our motivation was to teach their group how to safely conduct controlled burns, so they could teach others in the state.”

In 2017, the South Dakota group formed its own Mid-Missouri River Prescribed Burn Association —the first in the state — with Steffen and several neighbors as driving forces in the effort.

“Cedar trees were just beginning to become a problem,” Steffen recalls. “I looked at maps that showed the encroachment problems, especially big bunches along the Missouri River.”  The aerial maps showed about one-third of Gregory County with cedar tree problems. “Thanks to funds from the South Dakota Grasslands Coalition, we sent out a questionnaire, asking landowners about cedars on their land, and if they would consider prescribed fire as a control.”

Jerald DennisA prescribed burnLIGHTING IT UP:  Two years before the actual burn near Fort Randall Dam in South Dakota, Jerald Dennis sheared several large cedar trees and pushed them up against mature live trees. In 2012, when they started their prescribed burn in that area, the sheared trees ignited easily and burned into the live trees.

Steffen says that working with the Nebraska group helped their association in South Dakota organize and conduct burns of its own.

“We’ve had burns in the hundreds of acres so far, mostly in Gregory County, but also in Charles Mix County. That included a couple of big ranches,” Steffen says. “In many cases, nonresident landowners contact us about conducting a burn on their property. In most cases, we like it when landowners participate in the burn themselves, but with some nonresidents, we accept a payment for doing the burns.”

The Mid-Missouri River group now covers four counties, including Gregory, Charles Mix, Brule and Lyman.

“From the prescribed burns, we have witnessed tremendous recovery of warm-season native grasses on those grasslands where there was grazing management to go along with it,” Steffen says. “There has been fantastic recovery to a typical native plant community in the rough hills and breaks of the Missouri River.”

Cedar treesDEAD TIMBER:  At specific heights, cedar trees do not stand a chance against a well-run prescribed burn. Most of the trees pictured here are completed destroyed. Grass recovery in an area like this is surprisingly rapid.

Steffen says that landowners are amazed with the amount of new grass growth there has been within a year’s time. “Keep in mind, we’ve had plenty of rain in recent years to grow grass, so we have been above normal in soil moisture,” he adds.

For the group based in Bristow, fire has been a worthwhile tool in their war against ERC for more than a decade. “We add new, younger members to our group every year,” Dennis says. “Most of them are members of the fire department, so they are comfortable with conducting a burn. We all work together, and it is great knowing that the other guys have got your back.”

Learn more about Nebraska prescribed fire associations at the state’s Pheasants Forever and Quail Forever website, nebraskapf.com. Learn about the Mid-Missouri River Prescribed Burn Association of South Dakota online at midmissouririverpba.com.RELATEDYoung farmers get involved in ag groupsNovember 17, 2020Landowners band together to confront eastern red cedarJune 22, 2020

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Delta Farm Press 1

Boll weevil photo
A boll weevil-free growing environment has saved millions of dollars for cotton growers across the Cotton Belt as a result of a years-long program to eradicate the pest.

Arkansas weevil eradication force ramps up with expected cotton acre rise

Rebate headed to 2017 growers mailbox

David Bennett | Apr 06, 2018

Did you grow cotton in Arkansas last year? If so, a rebate is headed your way.

The reason has to do with boll weevils — or, more precisely, the eradication program (http://www.aad.arkansas.gov/boll-weevil-eradication-program) to keep them out of the state.

“At the end of last year, by the time we got through (with the eradication effort), the cost averaged out to about $2 per acre,” says Regina Coleman, Arkansas Boll Weevil Eradication Foundation executive director. “The assessment is $3 per acre and we keep a two-year operating reserve. It turned out we ended up with a surplus and that will now be given back to the growers in the form of a rebate.”

And it’s going to be an actual rebate, not a credit.

“It will be a 75-cent per acre rebate to growers who had cotton (in 2017). Those funds should be going to the growers in the next several weeks.”

Coleman, understandably, is very happy. “This is good news! Agriculture has taken a hit so many ways through the years. This whole program is for the growers and their benefit and it’ll be so nice to send those checks out.”

Acres rising

Bill Robertson, Arkansas Extension cotton specialist, expects north of 500,000 acres of cotton to be planted in the state this year. A big concern is growers coming to the crop for the first time.

“We need to remember we’re still in a boll weevil eradication program,” says Robertson. “Even though we haven’t caught a weevil in a long time, it’s still in force.

“The eradication program is paid for by Arkansas cotton producers. Mapping, establishing traps, and monitoring traps can be very costly. … The goal of the program is to implement an effective and economical program to ensure the sustainability of the Arkansas cotton industry.

“The eradication folks are working very hard right now. Think about it: there are a lot of new farmers coming into cotton. Some of them have never grown an acre before, and they may not understand how important it is to let the eradication monitors know where the cotton will be planted. That info needs to get on the monitors’ radar screens as quickly as possible.”

Coleman agrees. “The program has obviously been successful at eradicating the boll weevil. That’s due to a lot of hard work and diligence of a lot of people through the years. We had some folks early on say, ‘there’s no way we’re getting rid of the boll weevil.’ But we did through a consistent approach on spraying, being steady. A lot of money went into eradication, and because of that and the benefits growers receive from being weevil-free so, anyone growing cotton needs to report it.”

To maintain a weevil-free state, “we need everyone to participate. There are rules and regulations in place and the Arkansas State Plant Board is in charge of making sure those are followed. Basically, if you grow cotton in Arkansas you must report it to the Arkansas Boll Weevil Eradication Foundation. The acres must be reported by June 15. If you don’t report your acres, there is a $3 per acre penalty.”

Ramping up

Last year, Arkansas had 424,351 acres of cotton — up from 365,000 acres, says Coleman. “This year, we’re anticipating being over 500,000 acres. From all indications from the information I’ve gathered, that’s what we’re going to budget for.

“Last year, with the jump in acres, the field staff did an extremely good job. I can’t say enough about how good a job they did. We had a few changes in staffing we had to do. But we still only had four field staff and hired several seasonal workers. Everyone jumped in and took care of it and got the job done — covered everything, saw all the growers, took care of the trappings in an efficient manner.”

This year, with acres going up again, “we’ve added another full-time field staffer, and we’ll have three part-time seasonal workers. We’re still operating on a skeletal-type crew even though the acres are rising. But with the people we have on staff and the technology we use, the job can be done properly.”

Again, growers must have everything reported by June 15, and Coleman is “very anxious to see where we end up at.”

Southwest

One interesting development is an expected increase in cotton acres in southwest Arkansas.

“It’s kind of surprising how cotton is going back into the southwest,” says Coleman. “Our Southwest Zone is a four-county area around Texarkana. In 2006, I believe, they had almost 11,000 acres. Then, there was a big decline and there were no acres, gins closed. There was a small plot of cotton at one of the rest areas. So, we monitored that along with the trapping line we always work because Texas still has an active eradication program.”

Then, in 2016, 200 acres of cotton were planted.

“Last year, we had 1,800 acres with more intended but the weather didn’t cooperate. This year, after visiting with growers in the area, it looks like we might be back up to 10,000 acres.”

What kind of pressure does that put on the eradication force?

“The trapping line would have been worked regardless, so that’s normal. Now, trying to locate the growers and potential growers is a worry. Are these people who are coming back into cotton so they know to report? Or, are there brand-new cotton growers who don’t know to report?”

FSA offices have always been very helpful in providing Coleman and colleagues with information and “also to let growers know if they’re planning to plant cotton they need to let the eradication team know.”

Ornamental

One point of emphasis form both Coleman and Robertson: ornamental cotton.

 

“Driving through the country, I’ve seen people growing big, long rows of cotton in their front yards. The bolls were open and plants were loaded. So, that really complicates things for the boll weevil eradication effort. There’s all this ornamental cotton that the folks monitoring for weevils don’t have on their maps and they don’t know about.

“Can you imagine if weevils came back in because of private gardens? It’s just not a good idea to put cotton in your flowerbeds. That could cost millions of dollars to clean up if an outbreak were to occur, and it’s not worth taking the chance.”

Even though the eradication foundation strongly discourages ornamental planting, “we’re always happy to work with schools, museums and parks that are growing non-commercial cotton for education programs,” says Coleman. “In fact, we’re working with several this year. Someone who wants to grow non-commercial must call (the Foundation) or the Plant Board. There’s an application process they have to go through.

“We had a program we worked with last year around Conway (in central Arkansas). They were growing pumpkins along with the cotton. So, when schools came in to visit the pumpkin patch, they were given a lesson on cotton. Conway is way outside the normal cotton-growing areas of the state, obviously. But when you can educate the public on agriculture in a positive way, we’re definitely excited to help.”

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Two Sides of the Same Leaf: Controlling Pests in Cambodia

February 28, 2018
Kim Fooyontphanich

A Cambodian farmer working under the Pest Exclusion Nets in Battambang, Cambodia.

Innovation Lab for Pest Management
Cambodian agricultural scientists, extension agents, NGOs, and entrepreneurs learn about Trichoderma, a beneficial fungus that can control vegetable-attacking pests.

A Simple Pest Control Technology Helps Farmers Find Success

Phai Sila has been farming since she can remember, growing up in a farming family in Battambang, Cambodia.

“Agriculture has been a big part of my life,” Sila said. “I helped my parents in the field since I was very young and still continue to farm for a living after getting married and having my own children.”

South and Southeast Asia are regions with enormous potential for horticulture production, yet farmers like Sila still follow traditional farming methods that produce low yields and make farming less profitable.

One element of farming that contributes to decreased profits for smallholder farmers is the use of pesticides. While pesticides are used in many countries’ agricultural industries, for smallholder farmers in villages around the world, their cost can be prohibitively expensive. So farmers like Sila have begun exploring other pest control options.

Through support from Feed the Future, Sila and other farmers in Battambang learned how to install pest exclusion nets (PEN) to protect their crops from pests, control temperature and soil moisture, and reduce their reliance on pesticides that impact both the environment and human health.

“The PEN technology can help me reduce pesticide use in farming, protect my crops from the heat, and maintain soil moisture in the summer season,” said Sila. “The best thing I noticed after using this technology is that the number of insects that come and attack my crops is reduced by 80 percent.”

By using PEN, Sila was the only farmer in the village to successfully grow leafy vegetables this past summer. Because of the lack of vegetable supply at the local market, she earned 10 times more than in the winter season.

“The price is really good in the summer,” said Sila. “Buyers at the market could not believe that my vegetables were grown locally; they suspected that the produce was imported and went through heavy pesticide use because it looked fresh with very little damage from pests.”

Embracing Biological Pest Control to Protect Crops

Pest exclusion net technology is not the only new method of pest control being explored in Cambodia.

Beneficial bacteria, fungi and viruses are a viable alternative to chemical pesticides for controlling pests and diseases that attack cultivated crops.

Since 2009, the Feed the Future Integrated Pest Management Innovation Lab has worked to control pests and diseases that affect high-value vegetable crops. The lab has identified several potential biological pesticides for protecting crops in place of chemical pesticides, but one in particular – Trichoderma – could be produced locally and has proven to be highly effective.

There was one major hurdle to introducing Trichoderma to local farmers, though: The Government of Cambodia did not have a process for registering biological pesticide use within the country.

So the Feed the Future Integrated Pest Management Innovation Lab conducted a workshop in Cambodia’s capital, Phnom Penh, to educate and train local agricultural scientists, extension agents, NGOs and entrepreneurs about Trichoderma. It also helped local entrepreneurs establish companies that produce this beneficial fungus and sell it to farmers.

In collaboration with a project sponsored by the German government, the lab also worked to encourage the Cambodian government to establish a registry for biological control agents. A Trichoderma application produced by Kean Sophea, a local entrepreneur with whom the lab had worked, led to the first officially registered and locally produced biological control agent in Cambodia.

“We are happy with the government’s decision,” said Mao Canady, manager of Eco-Agri Co, Ltd, a Cambodian company that produces Trichoderma, of the new registry. “It will build trust between farmers, the private sector, and consumers.”

And because biological control agents are not only cheaper than chemical pesticides, but also generally have a much smaller impact on the soil and the environment, the future of Cambodia’s farmers looks promising.

The Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Integrated Pest Management, led by Virginia Tech, supports improved, environmentally sustainable yields for smallholder farmers through an environmentally-friendly, sustainable approach to reducing plant and crop damage caused by pests. The lab works with researchers, scientists, extension agents, farmers, policymakers, and government officials around the world, as well as universities in the United States and national and international agriculture research centers to tackle pest problems of vegetables, fruits, cereals, and legumes.

The Feed the Future Asia Innovative Farmers Project, funded by USAID and implemented by Winrock International, transforms the lives of farmers in South and Southeast Asia by supporting the discovery, development, and dissemination of impactful innovations that help farmers boost their incomes and improve their food security. The project works to identify, test, scale and disseminate critical technologies that enable smallholder farmers to improve productivity and income sustainably.

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