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Archive for the ‘Herbicides’ Category

Largest UK weed survey reveals Italian ryegrass challenge

Farm Weekly

© Blackthorn Arable© Blackthorn Arable

Results from the UK’s largest survey on Italian ryegrass has shown a complex and variable picture of herbicide resistance in the weed, emphasising the need for growers to test and understand the populations on their farms to achieve better control.

However, rising levels of resistance to commonly used herbicides are not the only cause of control difficulties, reveals weed specialist John Cussans of Niab, who also highlights application timing and better use of diversified modes of action as important actions.

See also: Tips on tackling five weed issues in no-till systems

“There is scope to improve practice, as there are too many fire brigade treatments being made,” he advises.

“It’s a complicated landscape when it comes to resistance mechanisms, but better attention to detail will help to avoid poor decision-making.”

Conducted by Niab with funding from Bayer, the survey of 197 samples from across the country investigated current on-farm control practice, as well as testing each Italian ryegrass sample for sensitivity to flufenacet, pinoxaden (Axial) and ALS herbicides (Atlantis).

In addition, 22 of the weed samples were used in a cross-resistance study, to understand any correlations between sensitivity to a wide range of herbicides, including glyphosate.

Post-emergence herbicides

“While the performance of post-emergence herbicides is significantly affected by resistance, it was lower than expected,” says Mr Cussans. (see “Post-emergence herbicide sensitivity”)

“The fact that a large number of samples are still susceptible to herbicides goes against the perception that many have about post-emergence chemistry.”

Dropping the use of perfectly good herbicides tends to happen when the resistance threat is exaggerated, he explains, which is why a better understanding of the situation on individual farms is so important.

Pre-emergence herbicide

When it comes to pre-emergence herbicides, all 197 samples were tested for sensitivity to straight flufenacet.

One-third of them showed either reduced sensitivity or resistance, reflecting that the selection pressure has been there for some time.

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Visit our Know How centre for practical farming advice

“If you pile on flufenacet, you will select resistance to it,” he says. “Of course, in practice it isn’t used alone – it is tank-mixed and sequenced with other actives.”

There are some populations of Italian ryegrass that are completely resistant to flufenacet – which makes it different to the situation with blackgrass, where there has been a shift in sensitivity, rather than complete failure.

Post-emergence herbicide sensitivity (% of samples)
 Atlantis  Axial
S45.645.6
R7.7   6.2
RR24.132.3
RRR 22.615.9
Pre-mergence herbicide sensitivity (% of samples)
 Flufenacet
Sensitive70.6
Significantly Reduced17.3
No Control9.6

Resistance testing

Further analysis showed regional differences between the three herbicides tested, with control from flufenacet being lower in the South East, North and Midlands.

“If you have an emerging issue with pre-emergence herbicides, you need to know about it. Get resistance testing done, preferably on a field-by-field basis – national statistics will make no difference to managing your weed populations.”

Even populations collected from two fields on the same farm can show differences in herbicide sensitivity, he warns, reflecting the very variable herbicide sensitivity present around the country.

Cross-resistance findings

A subset of 22 populations was used to test more herbicides and understand any correlations between them, as well as to look at glyphosate sensitivity.

The strongest correlation is between the existing pre-emergence actives – flufenacet, pendimthalin and prosulfocarb – while aclonifen is weakly correlated with sensitivity to existing pre-emergence products.

“If you have flufenacet resistance on the farm, you need to bring in other modes of action,” advises Mr Cussans. “Where three actives are combined, such as Liberator + Proclus, it largely overcomes flufenacet resistance.

“Broadening the base by combining modes of action helps to stabilise ryegrass control. That fact that we have two new modes of action this year in aclonifen and cinmethylin, and another coming next year, will help.”  

Having a stronger, more diverse base for Italian ryegrass control is important, he stresses.

“Ryegrass is more capable of overcoming herbicides and we know there is a degree of cross-resistance between existing pre-emergence chemistry.

“For this reason, it’s important to combine modes of action.”

Glyphosate sensitivity

There has been a shift in sensitivity to glyphosate in some problematic UK Italian ryegrass populations, but it is not resistance, confirms John Cussans.

The status of 50 difficult weed populations collected in 2019 was checked for their sensitivity to glyphosate at a range of doses, with some variation showing.

“We do not have glyphosate resistance in the UK, but we are as close as we’ve ever been to it,” he cautions. “That’s why we must monitor it and steward the product.”

Glyphosate sensitivity is totally independent of in-crop herbicide use, with the correlation between glyphosate sensitivity and sensitivity to other herbicides being very poor.

However, there is no doubt in Mr Cussan’s mind that poor practice will lead to glyphosate resistance, as it has been possible to select for glyphosate resistance in high-risk scenarios in glasshouse work.

“We must avoid any survivors of glyphosate applications going on to set seed.”

As a result, growers must take ownership of this issue and follow published guidance, he advises.

That is a view shared by Roger Bradbury, technical specialist at Bayer, who stresses the need to apply glyphosate at the right time, with the right dose for the target weed and with good application technique.

He refers growers to the latest Weed Resistance Action Group guidelines, which recommend a maximum of two glyphosate applications after harvest, before drilling the next crop, and stress the importance of monitoring herbicide performance and investigating any reasons for poor control.

“Everyone needs to be aware of the risks and do all they can to prevent resistance to selective herbicides.”

Aclonifen approval in barley

Bayer’s Proclus (aclonifen) has been approved in a tank-mix with Liberator (flufenacet +  diflufenican) for pre-emergence weed control in winter barley, adding a new mode of action and expanding the options for grassweed control in the crop.

A lower application rate of 1 litre/ha + 0.6 litre/ha Liberator, compared with 1.4 litres/ha in winter wheat, means the levels of weed control are slightly less – with a 7% uplift in Italian ryegrass recorded in Bayer trials and a 5-6% improvement in blackgrass control.

Winter barley’s earlier drilling date and more limited herbicide choice can make it a challenging crop for weeds, says Bayer’s Tom Chillcott, who points out that including aclonifen in the pre-emergence mix gives more protection and helps with resistance management.

“Having a new mode of action in barley adds another layer of protection and helps to take the selection pressure off flufenacet.”

As aclonifen sits on the soil surface, weeds have to grow up through it before it takes effect, he adds.

“That means seed-bed preparation, drilling depth and application timing all matter, especially as aclonifen can be a bit hot in some scenarios, and barley is a more sensitive crop.”

A minimum sowing depth of 3.2cm and application within 48 hours are important, as is avoiding heavy rain soon after application.

It will be sold as a co-pack of Proclus and Liberator, as in wheat, and will add £10/ha to pre-emergence costs in barley.

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JUNE 22, 2022

Timing is everything for weed management

by Jim Catalano, Cornell University

Timing is everything for weed management
Bryan Brown, integrated weed management specialist for New York State Integrated Pest Management, stands in a soybean field that lost 50% of its yield to weed competition, even after several herbicide applications. Credit: Cornell University

Farmers can tailor their efforts to control weeds more effectively by pinpointing when a particular weed will emerge, according to a new Cornell University study.

Researchers in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences reviewed past studies on the peak timing of emergence for 15 troublesome weed species in the Northeast, as well as potential ways to use this knowledge, in their study, “Improving Weed Management Based on the Timing of Emergence Peaks: A Case Study of Problematic Weeds in Northeast U.S.,” published June 21 in the journal Frontiers in Agronomy.

“There are lot of different weed management tactics out there, and most of them can be improved with some consideration of what weed species you have and when they emerge,” said lead author Bryan Brown, integrated weed management specialist for New York State Integrated Pest Management and adjunct assistant Professor in the School of Integrative Plant Science’s Horticulture Section, in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. “In this paper, we provided a framework starting with those tactics that are easiest to tailor or adjust—all the way up to revamping a cropping system—based on avoidance of certain weed species.”

As an example, Brown pointed to common ragweed. “We found that in most of the literature, common ragweed had finished up its emergence by June 1,” he said. “So, if you’re able to wait to till and plant your field until after June 1, then you’ve effectively avoided common ragweed for the season.” Conversely, if a field is riddled with mid- or late-season weeds, planting earlier can help give crops a head start to outcompete them.

When it comes to controlling weed seedlings using herbicides or shallow tilling, control is most effective soon after weeds emerge, so knowing when different weed species grow can help farmers plan ahead.

Farms with flexible crop rotations can leave the ground bare, or perhaps cover-cropped, during the period when their most problematic weed emerges. By controlling that species, they essentially remove its weed seeds from the soil so it will be less of a problem in the future.

The researchers found that the timing of weed emergence varied among previous studies due to factors such as weather, soil temperature and moisture.

“Naturally, that’s going to vary from year to year and from study to study,” Brown said. “But the big surprise to me was that among previous studies that modeled weed emergence, when we input identical weather data, there was still variation in when they expected weeds to emerge. That highlights the regional differences in soils and weed genetics.”

As the models improve by incorporating regional differences, the researchers hope to work with the Network for Environment and Weather Applications to give farmers direct access to weather-based weed emergence predictions.

“As weed management becomes more challenging, I think that this type of planning is going to become more important,” Brown said. “Hopefully, as those emergence models become more accurate we’ll be able to use these tactics to even better use and really fine-tune the timing of our weed management.”


Explore further

Examining the impact of herbicide-resistant crops on weed management


More information: Bryan Brown et al, Improving Weed Management Based on the Timing of Emergence Peaks: A Case Study of Problematic Weeds in Northeast USA, Frontiers in Agronomy (2022). DOI: 10.3389/fagro.2022.888664

Provided by Cornell University 

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Stemming the tide of invasive weeds with world-first herbicide capsules

Amelia Limbongan using her equipment

2 December 2021

The University of Queensland

An innovative herbicide delivery system could revolutionise the way agricultural and environmental managers battle invasive weeds.

The ingenious method uses herbicide-filled capsules drilled into the stems of invasive woody weeds and is safer, cleaner and as effective as herbicide sprays, which can have negative health impacts on workers and surrounding areas.

PhD candidate Amelia Limbongan from The University of Queensland’s School of Agriculture and Food Sciences said the method was highly effective against a wide variety of weed species, which pose a major threat to farming and grazing systems.

“Woody weeds such as Mimosa bush stifle pasture growth, impede mustering and cause physical and financial damage to animals and property,” Ms Limbongan said.

“This method of weed control is practical, portable and far more convenient than other methods and we’ve already seen several professional operators and councils adopting the approach.”

The portability and convenience of the system, coupled with its proven efficacy and safety, meant the encapsulated herbicide could be used in a variety of settings and locations worldwide.

“This method uses 30 per cent less herbicide to kill weeds, and is just as effective as more labour-intensive approaches, which will save valuable time and money for farmers and foresters,” Ms Limbongan said.

“It could also lead to better management of weeds in agricultural and environmental systems across the globe, while also protecting workers by practically eliminating their exposure to harmful herbicides.

“There is a great market for this technology in countries where invasive weeds are a problem and where forestry is an industry, which would be almost every country.”

Professor Victor Galea said the process used a mechanical applicator called the InJecta, that quickly drilled a hole in the stem of the woody weed, implanting a dissolvable capsule containing the dry herbicide and sealing the capsule into the stem with a wooden plug, bypassing the need to spray over large areas of land.

“The herbicide is then dissolved by plant sap and kills the weed from the inside and, due to the small amount of herbicide used in each capsule, causes no leakage,” Professor Galea said.

“Another reason why this delivery system is so useful is that it protects non-target plants, which are often damaged through accidental contact when using traditional methods such as spraying.”

Researchers are continuing to trial the capsule method on several different weed species and have a number of similar products in line for distribution, which will help farmers, foresters and environmental managers eliminate invasive weeds.

“One of the products tested in this research paper, Di-Bak G (glyphosate), is already being sold in Australia along with the applicator equipment and can be purchased through agricultural supplies outlets across the country,” Professor Galea said.

“Three more products are being prepared for registration and we plan to expand this range over time.”

The research has been published in Plants (DOI: 10.3390/plants10112505).

Media: Amelia Limbongan, a.limbongan@uq.net.au, +61 (0)432 083 776, Professor Victor Galea, v.galea@uq.edu.au, +61 (0)7 5460 1282, Dominic Jarvis, dominic.jarvis@uq.edu.au, +61 (0)413 334 924.

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IAPPS Region X Northeast Asia Regional Center (NEARC)

Present committee members

Dr. Izuru Yamamoto, Senior Advisor

Dr. Noriharu Umetsu, Senior Advisor

Dr. Tsutomu Arie, a representative of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, the chair of Region X

Dr. Tarô Adati, a representative of Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology

Dr. Hiromitsu Moriyama, a representative of Pesticide Science Society of Japan, the secretary general of Region X

Dr. Rie Miyaura, a representative of The Weed Science Society of Japan

The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Pesticide Science Society of Japan became official partners of IYPH2020 by FAO of UN and Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) of Japan and endeavored to educate the society on plant protection. https://www.maff.go.jp/j/syouan/syokubo/keneki/iyph/iyph_os.html

Annual activities related to IAPPS especially to IPM of plant diseases, insects and weeds, and plant regulation (from April 2020 to March 2021)

The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

2020 Kanto District Meeting, Online; Sep 21–22, 2020

2020 Kansai District Meeting, Online; Sep 21–22, 2020

2020 Tohoku District Meeting, Online; Oct 12–14, 2020

2020 Hokkaido District Meeting, Online; Oct 15, 2020

2020 Kyushu District Meeting, Online; Nov 24–26, 2020

2021 Annual Meeting, Online; Mar 17–19, 2021

Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology (JSAEZ)

65th Annual Meeting, online, March 23-26, 2021

28th Annual Research Meeting of the Japan-ICIPE Association, online, March 25, 2021

Pesticide Science Society of Japan

37rd Study Group Meeting of Special Committee on Bioactivity of Pesticides, online, Sep 18, 2020

40th Symposium of Special Committee on Agricultural Formulation and Application, Yokohama, Kanagawa; Oct 15–16, 2020 (Cancelled due to the spread of COVID-19)

43th Annual Meeting of Special Committee on Pesticide Residue Analysis, online, Nov. 5–6, 2020

46th Annual meeting, Fuchu, Tokyo and Online, March 8–10, 2021

The Weed Science Society of Japan (WSSJ)

2020 Annual Meeting, The Weed Science Society of Kinki, Online; Dec 5, 2020

35th Symposium of Weed Science Society of Japan, Online; Dec 12, 2020

2020 Annual Meeting, Kanto Weed Science Society, Online; Dec 22, 2020

22th Annual Meeting, The Weed Science Society of Tohoku, Japan, Online; Feb 25, 2021

2020 Study Group Meeting of Weed Utilization and Management in Small Scale Farming, Online; Feb 26, 2021

Hono-Kai (means, Meeting who are appreciating agriculture)

35th Hono-Kai Symposium was cancelled due to the epidemic of COVID-19

Japan Biostimulants Association

rd Symposium, Online; Nov 2–30, 2020

Nodai Research Institute

2020-1 Biological Control Group Seminar, Setagaya; Tokyo; Jun 16, 2020 (Cancelled due to the epidemic of COVID-19)

2020-2 Biological Control Group Seminar, online, Nov 13, 2020

2021-1 Biological Control Group Seminar, online, Jun 15, 2021

2021-2 Biological Control Group Seminar, online, Nov 9, 2021

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Bayer develops herbicides for cassava to tackle weeds and raise yields

12 October 2021Bayer has developed and launched a new crop protection product known as Lagon to help farmers tackle the problem of cassava weeds in cassava and boost yield. Tested on more than 200 trials and demos across Nigeria and Tanzania, users rated Lagon among the best preemergence herbicides for controlling grasses and broadleaf weeds in cassava.

Bayer develops herbicides for cassava to tackle weeds and raise yields
Cassava Farmer, Marcos Antonio Dalevedove; Country Sales Manager, Bayer Nigeria Limited, Temitope Banjo; IITA Director for Development and Delivery, Dr Alfred Dixon; Nigeria Cassava Growers Association representative, Simeon Adetunji during the launch of Lagon for weed control in Cassava in Ibadan.

“The launch of Lagon today provides a big relief to farmers,” said Bayer Nigeria Country Sales Manager, Temitope Banjo. “These are exciting times for cassava farmers, and they need not worry about weeds anymore,” he added.

Weeds are a major challenge to increased cassava productivity in Nigeria and Africa in general, with women spending about 500 hours annually to keep a hectare of cassava weed-free using hoes. The manual method of weed control compromises the health of resource-constrained farmers, and in some cases, children are pulled out of school to support weeding.

When left uncontrolled, weeds compete with cassava for water, nutrients, and space, reducing yields by 40 to 90%. To tackle the menace of weeds, the IITA-managed Cassava Weed Management Project has screened more than 40 preemergence herbicides in the last eight years, both on-station and on-farm. The trials and subsequent demonstrations were conducted in Abia, Benue, Ogun, and Oyo states in Nigeria and in Tanzania.

Across the four states, which represent the key agroecological zones that predominantly grow cassava in Nigeria, cassava yields from Lagon-treated fields were more than double the national average and above 20 tons per hectare. Furthermore, cassava plants treated with Lagon were more robust than those on untreated fields or where the product was not used.

IITA Director for Development and Delivery Alfred Dixon said that the Cassava Weed Management Project team also conducted residue analysis on cassava leaves, stems, and roots. “The residue analysis provided negative results, meaning that Lagon is safe for application on field crops, particularly cassava,” Dixon added.

Farmers who use Lagon commended the Bayer preemergence herbicides for their efficacy.

According to Chichi Ngufan, using Lagon on farmers’ fields was doing “wonders” and helping farmers increase their yields and profits. Ngufan, a cassava commercial seed producer, said the use of Lagon has helped her group increase the size of their cassava farm in Benue.

“This is possible because we now manage weeds in cassava better,” she said, adding that with Lagon, farmers were saving more on weeding costs.

Ngufan called on the government to support the dissemination of Lagon so that more farmers could have access to the product and make more returns from growing cassava.FacebookTwitterEmailShare

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India gets first herbicide-tolerant & non-GM rice varieties; launch today

Indian Express, Oct. 19, 2021

The varieties — Pusa Basmati 1979 and Pusa Basmati 1985 — contain a mutated acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene making it possible for farmers to spray Imazethapyr, a broad-spectrum herbicide, to control weeds.

  • I

Written by Harish Damodaran | New Delhi |
Updated: September 28, 2021 7:37:06 am

IARI director AK Singh at a trial field containing both herbicide-tolerant basmati and normal basmati (left plot), whose plants have been killed along with weeds after spraying Imazethapyr. (Photo by Harish Damodaran)

The Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) has developed the country’s first-ever non-GM (genetically modified) herbicide-tolerant rice varieties that can be directly seeded and significantly save water and labour compared to conventional transplanting.

The varieties — Pusa Basmati 1979 and Pusa Basmati 1985 — contain a mutated acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene making it possible for farmers to spray Imazethapyr, a broad-spectrum herbicide, to control weeds. This dispenses with the need to prepare nurseries where paddy seeds are first raised into young plants, before being uprooted and replanted 25-35 days later in the main field.

The two new varieties are scheduled to be officially released by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Tuesday.https://56428c50993d1e8aab4b4fb64a9125c7.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.htmlRead |Need to think of ‘respectable jobs’ for landless and small farm households: NITI Aayog member

Paddy transplantation is both labour- and water-intensive. The field where the seedlings are transplanted has to be “puddled” or tilled in standing water. For the first three weeks or so after transplanting, the plants are irrigated almost daily to maintain a water depth of 4-5 cm. Farmers continue giving water every two-three days even for the next four-five weeks when the crop is in tillering (stem development) stage.

“Water is a natural herbicide that takes care of weeds in the paddy crop’s early-growth period. The new varieties simply replace water with Imazethapyr and there’s no need for nursery, puddling, transplanting and flooding of fields. You can sow paddy directly, just like wheat,” said A K Singh, director of IARI.Top News Right Now

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Imazethapyr, effective against a range of broadleaf, grassy and sedge weeds, can’t be used on normal paddy, as the chemical does not distinguish between the crop and the invasive plants. The ALS gene in rice codes for an enzyme (protein) that synthesises amino acids for crop growth and development. The herbicide sprayed on normal rice plants binds itself to the ALS enzymes, inhibiting their production of amino acids.

The new basmati varieties contain an ALS gene whose DNA sequence has been altered using ethyl methanesulfonate, a chemical mutant. As a result, the ALS enzymes no longer have binding sites for Imazethapyr and amino acid synthesis isn’t inhibited. The plants can also now “tolerate” application of the herbicide, and hence it kills only the weeds.Also Read |India must shed obsession with ‘marginal farmers’. Their future lies outside farms — in dairy, poultry, food retail

“This is herbicide-tolerance through mutation breeding, not GM. There isn’t any foreign gene here,” Singh pointed out.

Both Pusa Basmati 1979 and 1985 have been bred by crossing existing popular varieties — Pusa 1121 and Pusa 1509, respectively — with ‘Robin’. The latter is a mutant line derived from Nagina 22, an upland drought-tolerant rice variety. The mutant was identified for Imazethapyr-tolerance by S Robin, a rice breeder from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University in Coimbatore.Also Read |For easy access to schemes, Govt plans 12-digit unique ID for farmers, database

Farmers in Punjab and Haryana are already adopting direct seeding of rice (DSR) in response to labour shortages and depleting water tables. This year alone, roughly 6 lakh of the total 44.3 lakh hectares area under paddy in the two states has come under DSR.

DSR cultivation is currently based on two herbicides, Pendimethalin (applied within 72 hours of sowing) and Bispyribac-sodium (after 18-20 days). As Singh pointed out, “These are costlier than Imazethapyr (Rs 1,500 versus Rs 300/acre). Imazethapyr, moreover, has a wider weed-control range and is safer, as the ALS gene isn’t present in humans and mammals. Even in the herbicide-tolerant rice, the chemical will target only the weeds.”

https://open.spotify.com/embed-podcast/show/0ygP4jm9c9SdqUM3C6DycM

Transplantation in paddy typically requires about 30 irrigations, each consuming some 5 hectare-cm of water (one hectare-cm equals 100,000 litres). Puddling alone takes up about 15 hectare-cm. In all, DSR is estimated to need 30 per cent less water, save Rs 3,000 per acre in transplantation labour charges, and also 10-15 days’ time due to no nursery preparation.

But DSR’s success hinges on an effective herbicide solution — like breeding Imazethapyr-tolerant varieties.

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Pigweed shows resistance in spots to glyphosate, ALS, HPPD and PPOs

Eric Jones/NCSU_Eric Jones_NCSU-Waterhemp.jpgWes Everman urges farmers to be on the lookout for water hemp on their farms.Everman stresses the importance of pre-emergent herbicides, postemergent herbicides and residuals.

John Hart | Aug 24, 2021SUGGESTED EVENT

Events Page - Farm Progress Show 2021

Farm Progress ShowAug 31, 2021 to Sep 02, 2021

North Carolina State University Extension Weed Specialist Wes Everman continues to urge North Carolina farmers to be on the lookout for resistant waterhemp, redroot pigweed and Palmer amaranth across the state.

Speaking at the Blacklands Farm Managers Tour Aug. 4 at Turnpike Farms in Pantego, N.C., Everman said Palmer amaranth is now showing resistance in spots across North Carolina to glyphosate, ALS, HPPD and PPO technologies. He noted that testing is also underway to see if Palmer amarnath is resistant to atrazine. He also said resistant redroot pigweed is popping up in spots across the state. https://dc33b5251deac1ea475e6c827fe410e1.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html

Once again, Everman urged farmers to use multiple modes of action as the key to resistance management. He stressed the importance of pre-emergent herbicides, postemergent herbicides and residuals.

“I see folks going out with jut 2,4-D, just dicamba, or just Liberty with no residual in the tank, no other  product in the tank. That’s a recipe for disaster,” Everman told the crowd at the Blacklands tour.

Everman noted that when one product quits working, farmers shift to another and then switch again and switch again. “We don’t get away from resistance by doing that. We want to use these residuals, our Group 15s, Dual, Warrant, Zidua, and our Group 14s, Valor, Spartan and Reflex.”ADVERTISING

The use of both pre-emergence and postemergence herbicides is a must. He said such products as Flexstar, Cobra and Blazer can generally be used across the farm. He also said metribuzin is generally a safe option as well. He stressed the importance of rotating Liberty, Enlist and Xtend traits.

“If we can rotate them in a season, even better. We can’t just pick one technology and wear it out and then hope to go to the next. I don’t think that’s going to work, and we’re only talking about three products. How long do we have if we don’t start switching now?” Everman said.

Everman pointed out the new weeds are coming into the state primarily through equipment that is purchased from Midwestern states and then brought into North Carolina. He also said waterfowl can move weed seed from one part of the state to another. He said it has been confirmed that water hemp was introduced into North Carolina from a combine purchased in the Midwest and brought to North Carolina.

He urged farmers to be on the lookout for water hemp on their farms. It is different than Palmer and redroot pigweed in that it has thin leaves and shorter petioles. He said it is hairless, like Palmer.

“If you have a weed that looks like it might be Palmer, but looks a little funny, get in touch with your county agent or Charlie (Cahoon, also a North Carolina State Extension weed specialist) or me. We want to make sure. We don’t want to see water hemp pop up in too many places,” Everman said.

In addition to keeping an eye out for water hemp, redroot pigweed and Palmer amaranth, Everman urged Blackland farmers to be on the lookout for common ragweed. He said just north of the Blacklands, in northeastern North Carolina, common ragweed has shown three-way resistance to glyphosate, ALS and PPO inhibitors.

“It (common ragweed) could move on equipment down here. Water hemp came to North Carolina from the Midwest. Pretty much everything we have identified in North Carolina has moved on equipment. They brought it here and they brought along seed issues,” he said.

“The No. 1 piece you can move weed seeds with is a combine. If you have a weedy patch, if you’re bringing a combine from another farm, if you’re getting help from somebody, if you have time and you have the opportunity, clean that thing from front to back. Try  to get as much seed out of it as you can. This is an inherited problem, something that came along with the equipment,” Everman said.

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Preview(opens in a new tab)Add titleGene editing poised to spark innovation in herbicide- and disease-resistant sugar cane

Gene editing poised to spark innovation in herbicide- and disease-resistant sugar cane

Julie Wurth | CABBI | July 22, 2021

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Credit: Fawakih
Credit: Fawakih

This article or excerpt is included in the GLP’s daily curated selection of ideologically diverse news, opinion and analysis of biotechnology innovation.

Sugarcane is one of the most productive plants on Earth, providing 80 percent of the sugar and 30 percent of the bioethanol produced worldwide. Its size and efficient use of water and light give it tremendous potential for the production of renewable value-added bioproducts and biofuels.

But the highly complex sugarcane genome poses challenges for conventional breeding, requiring more than a decade of trials for the development of an improved cultivar.

Two recently published innovations by University of Florida researchers at the Department of Energy’s Center for Advanced Bioenergy and Bioproducts Innovation (CABBI) demonstrated the first successful precision breeding of sugarcane by using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing — a far more targeted and efficient way to develop new varieties.

CRISPR/Cas9 allows scientists to introduce precision changes in almost any gene and, depending on the selected approach, to turn the gene off or replace it with a superior version. The latter is technically more challenging and has rarely been reported for crops so far.Follow the latest news and policy debates on agricultural biotech and biomedicine? Subscribe to our newsletter.SIGN UP

“Now we have very effective tools to modify sugarcane into a crop with higher productivity or improved sustainability,” [researcher Fredy] Altpeter said. “It’s important since sugarcane is the ideal crop to fuel the emerging bioeconomy.”

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Metabolic weed resistance theme of UT Weed Tour

Ginger RowseyLarrySteckelWeedTour.jpg

Larry Steckel, Extension weed scientist with the University of Tennessee shares information about his latest research during the 2021 Weed Tour.University research points to spreading metabolic weed resistance in Tennessee fields.

Ginger Rowsey | Jun 25, 2021SUGGESTED EVENT

Events Page - Farm Progress Show 2021

Farm Progress ShowAug 31, 2021 to Sep 02, 2021

The University of Tennessee held its annual Weed Tour on June 16 at the West Tennessee AgResearch and Education Center in Jackson. The overarching theme of the day — metabolic weed resistance is here and spreading.

“We’re clearly seeing metabolic resistance,” said Larry Steckel, UT Extension weed specialist. “It’s different than what we’ve always seen with target site resistance, which is what Roundup or PPO resistance was. With target site resistance, it seems like overnight, the herbicide, even applied at six to ten times the labeled rate quits working on a particular weed. While what we have seen with metabolic driven herbicide resistance typically involved more than one herbicide with the level of resistance two to four times.”https://a9ffbcfe2d577340816712d2d2a5ee6b.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html

“We’re seeing it with dicamba and 2,4-D, but we’re also seeing more subtle declines in control with a number of different herbicides, including the Group 15 herbicides like Dual or Warrant,” he adds. “Not that they’re not working, but maybe they were working for 17 days and now they’re only holding 15-16 days.”

Steckel’s take home message for managing metabolic weed resistance: Use the max rate of pre-emergence herbicide for any given soil type. Then, overlay another pre-emergence herbicide. You’ll need two passes of post-emergence herbicides. Be as timely as you can with those post applications.

Visitors to the Weed Tour were able to see dozens of herbicide treatments in the university’s research plots. The tour was led by Steckel, along with Clay Perkins and graduate student Delaney Foster. In addition to plots at the AgResearch Center, Steckel and his crew conduct on-farm research where they are seeing more evidence of metabolic resistance. Even documenting Palmer amaranth escapes from applications of auxin herbicides made at the 4X rate.ADVERTISING

“We’ve got to start thinking about some different ways to manage for it,” he added. “One is to be as timely as possible, which is easier said than done. The other is relying more on pres. Based on my conversations with farmers and retailers, I think we’re using more pre’s this year, and I think that’s helped. They’ve worked for the most part pretty well. But now we’re in the crunch time when all the posts are going out, and I’m expecting some calls from folks who are disappointed in their herbicide performance.”

Combating metabolic weed resistance

Cytochrome P450 is a naturally occurring enzyme that detoxifies foreign chemicals. It’s found in plants and animals, but plants have more genes for the P450 enzyme. Over time growers inadvertently select for weeds with higher numbers of these enzymes in their genetic makeup. These enzymes can then detoxify herbicides applied to the weed.

Researchers often test for metabolic resistance by mixing the herbicide in question with malathion. Malathion, along with all the organophosphate insecticides, are known cytochrome P450 inhibitors. That means they’ll bind up the enzyme that is detoxifying the herbicide.

“When you inhibit those P450’s, the thought is the herbicide will now kill the weed,” Foster said.

Steckel and Foster were hopeful malathion could be a solution. In greenhouse research this past winter, they saw promising results, with malathion improving auxin herbicide control as much as 32% in some treatments. But results in field trials were not as good.

“It worked a little better with 2,4-D than dicamba,” Foster said, “but here we didn’t see a big malathion difference. That doesn’t mean this herbicide resistance isn’t metabolism based. There are hundreds of P450 enzymes and lots of P450 inhibitors. Malathion targets one. We’ll continue evaluating other P450 inhibitors and hopefully figure out what the mechanism of resistance is here.”TAGS: CROPS

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Ceylon Daily News

Plans to produce powerful natural herbicide using invasive species

Saturday, June 19, 2021 – 01:16Print EditionLocal

The Environment Ministry plans to produce a powerful natural herbicide using several invasive species that are to be removed from the environment immediately in support of the President’s organic farming programme.

The purpose of this is to prevent the use of chemical pesticides and herbicides along with the ban on the use of chemical fertilizers and to prevent farmers from getting into trouble due to the lack of a suitable herbicide for weed control.

Environment Minister Mahinda Amaraweera instructed Ministry officials on Thursday to be prepared to make a special contribution to the promotion of organic farming under the Ministry.

The discussion was attended by Ministry Secretary Dr. Anil Jasinghe and heads of the Central Environmental Authority, Geological Survey and Mines Bureau, Technical Services Company and many other external institutions.ht

“The decision taken by the President to stop the use of chemical fertilizers for cultivation and to introduce organic farming instead is a historic decision. Other Ministries cannot remain silent, leaving these matters to the Ministry of Agriculture alone. Therefore, as the Ministry of Environment, we have a great responsibility to intervene in this matter,” said Minister Amaraweera.

“Farmers are currently demanding chemical fertilizers. The decision taken by the President for organic farming will be implemented from this Maha season. Therefore, there is a need to provide chemical fertilizers during the Yala season this year. It was also proposed to set up a medium scale factory for this purpose in the Hambantota District where these invasive plants are in abundance,” the Minister said.

“Pesticides and herbicides along with chemical fertilizers have also been banned, making it difficult for farmers as well as cultivators to get sufficient manpower in the tea and rubber industry as well as in paddy cultivation. There is a possibility of producing a successful herbicide using these invasive plants as a solution. It is also 100% chemical free and eco-friendly. Arrangements have been made to hold further discussions in this regard at the Divisional Secretariat in Hambantota today (19). These invasive plants are species recommended by the Ministry of Environment for immediate destruction,” Minister Amaraweera said.

The Minister also said that steps will be taken to launch a number of small and medium scale projects for the

production of organic fertilizer required for agriculture in the Hambantota District during the Maha season this year.

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Soil Biodiversity Under Grave Threat from Pesticides – Most Comprehensive Review Ever

Posted on May 7 2021 – 3:00pm by Sustainable Pulse« PREVIOUSNEXT »Categorized as

new study published Tuesday by the academic journal Frontiers in Environmental Science finds that pesticides widely used in American agriculture pose a grave threat to organisms that are critical to healthy soil, biodiversity and soil carbon sequestration to fight climate change. Yet those harms are not considered by U.S. regulators.

The study, by researchers at the Center for Biological Diversity, Friends of the Earth U.S. and the University of Maryland, is the largest, most comprehensive review of the impacts of agricultural pesticides on soil organisms ever conducted.

The researchers compiled data from nearly 400 studies, finding that pesticides harmed beneficial, soil-dwelling invertebrates including earthworms, ants, beetles and ground nesting bees in 71% of cases reviewed.

“It’s extremely concerning that 71% of cases show pesticides significantly harm soil invertebrates,” said Dr. Tara Cornelisse, an entomologist at the Center and co-author of the study. “Our results add to the evidence that pesticides are contributing to widespread declines of insects, like beneficial predaceous beetles and pollinating solitary bees. These troubling findings add to the urgency of reining in pesticide use.”

The findings come on the heels of a recent study published in the journal Science showing pesticide toxicity has more than doubled for many invertebrates since 2005. Despite reduced overall use of insecticides, the chemicals most commonly used today, including neonicotinoids, are increasingly toxic to beneficial insects and other invertebrates. Pesticides can linger in the soil for years or decades after they are applied, continuing to harm soil health.

The reviewed studies showed impacts on soil organisms that ranged from increased mortality to reduced reproduction, growth, cellular functions and even reduced overall species diversity. Despite these known harms, the Environmental Protection Agency does not require soil organisms to be considered in any risk analysis of pesticides. What’s more, the EPA gravely underestimates the risk of pesticides to soil health by using a species that spends its entire life aboveground — the European honeybee — to estimate harm to all soil invertebrates.

“Below the surface of fields covered with monoculture crops of corn and soybeans, pesticides are destroying the very foundations of the web of life,” said Dr. Nathan Donley, another co-author and scientist at the Center. “Study after study indicates the unchecked use of pesticides across hundreds of millions of acres each year is poisoning the organisms critical to maintaining healthy soils. But our regulators have been ignoring the harm to these important ecosystems for decades.”

Soil invertebrates provide a variety of essential ecosystem benefits such as cycling nutrients that plants need to grow, decomposing dead plants and animals so that they can nourish new life, and regulating pests and diseases. They’re also critical for the process of carbon conversion. As the idea of “regenerative agriculture” and using soil as a carbon sponge to help fight climate change gains momentum around the world, the findings of this study confirm that reducing pesticide use is a key factor in protecting the invertebrate ecosystem engineers that play a critical role in carbon sequestration in the soil.

“Pesticide companies are continually trying to greenwash their products, arguing for the use of pesticides in ‘regenerative’ or ‘climate-smart’ agriculture,” said Dr. Kendra Klein, a co-author who’s also a senior scientist at Friends of the Earth. “This research shatters that notion and demonstrates that pesticide reduction must be a key part of combatting climate change in agriculture.”

“We know that farming practices such as cover cropping and composting build healthy soil ecosystems and reduce the need for pesticides in the first place,” said co-author Dr. Aditi Dubey of the University of Maryland. “However, our farm policies continue to prop up a pesticide-intensive food system. Our results highlight the need for policies that support farmers to adopt ecological farming methods that help biodiversity flourish both in the soil and above ground.”

Background

The review paper looked at 394 published papers on the effects of pesticides on non-target invertebrates that have egg, larval or immature development in the soil. That review encompassed 275 unique species or groups of soil organisms and 284 different pesticide active ingredients or unique mixtures of pesticides.

The assessment analyzed how pesticides affected the following endpoints: mortality, abundance, richness and diversity, behavior, biochemical markers, impairment of reproduction and growth, and structural changes to the organism. This resulted in an analysis of more than 2,800 separate “cases” for analysis, measured as a change in a specific endpoint following exposure of a specific organism to a specific pesticide. It found that 71% of cases showed negative effects.

Negative effects were evident in both lab and field studies, across all studied pesticide classes, and in a wide variety of soil organisms and endpoints. Organophosphate, neonicotinoid, pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides, amide/anilide herbicides and benzimidazole and inorganic fungicides harmed soil organisms in more than 70% of cases reviewed.

Insecticides caused the most harm to nontarget invertebrates, with studies showing around 80% of tested endpoints negatively affected in ground beetles, ground nesting solitary bees, parasitic wasps, millipedes, centipedes, earthworms and springtails.

Herbicides and fungicides were especially detrimental to earthworms, nematodes and springtails.

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