Aphelenchoides besseyi



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EPPO Datasheet: Aphelenchoides besseyi

Last updated: 2020-07-24


Preferred name:Aphelenchoides besseyi
Authority: Christie
Taxonomic position: Animalia: Nematoda: Chromadorea: Rhabditida: Aphelenchoididae
Other scientific names: Aphelenchoides oryzae Yokoo, Asteroaphelenchoides besseyi (Christie) Drozdovski
Common names in English: rice leaf nematode, rice white-tip nematode, strawberry crimp disease nematode, white-tip nematode
view more common names online…
Notes on taxonomy and nomenclature

The taxonomy used in this datasheet reflects developments suggested by several recent publications, summarised in Decraemer & Hunt (2013), which place Aphelenchoides in the Order Rhabditida, Suborder Tylenchina. This contrasts with the taxonomy nomenclature occasionally used by some authors (such as the CABI Invasive Species Compendium CABI, 2019; Wheeler & Crow, 2020), which place Aphelenchoides in the Order Aphelenchida, Suborder Aphelenchina (Hunt, 1993). Whilst this makes no difference to classification from the level of Superfamily (Aphelenchoidea) to species level (Aphelenchoides besseyi), those studying the species might need to be aware of differences in the literature.EPPO Categorization: A2 list
EU Categorization: RNQP (Annex IV)
view more categorizations online…
EPPO Code: APLOBE HOSTS 2020-07-24 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 2020-07-24 BIOLOGY 2020-07-24 DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION 2020-07-24 PATHWAYS FOR MOVEMENT 2020-07-24 PEST SIGNIFICANCE 2020-07-24 PHYTOSANITARY MEASURES 2020-07-24 REFERENCES 2020-07-24 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 2020-07-24 How to cite this datasheet? Datasheet history 2020-07-24

The ‘diabolical’ beetle

Matt SimonScience10.21.2020 11:00 AM

How the ‘Diabolical’ Beetle Survives Being Run Over by a Car

The puny insect can withstand forces 39,000 times its body weight. Scientists just discovered its super-strength secret—which could inspire new materials.

beetle exoskeleton
The wing coverings of the diabolical ironclad beetle lock together like pieces of a puzzle, giving the insect legendary toughness.Photograph: Jesus Rivera/UCI
  • The field of entomology is built on the humble pin: Biologists venture into grasslands and forests, scoop up insects, euthanize them, and pin them onto the trays that make up natural history collections in museums and universities, thus immortalizing the specimens for future scientists to examine. But the diabolical ironclad beetle—its actual name, though it’s more formally known as Phloeodes diabolicus—will suffer no such indignity. Native to the southwestern US, it’s known as a “pin-bender,” an insect so tough that when biologists try to drive a pin through its black, bumpy shell, the puny metal gives way. It’s so tough that entomologists have to drill a hole through it first, then drive the stake through. Which is an extra indignity, come to think of it.

The diabolical ironclad beetle is so tough, in fact, that if you run one over with a car, it just walks away. It can withstand forces 39,000 times its body weight. To actually crush this beetle requires 150 newtons of force, which, if you don’t speak fluent physics, is 7.5 times stronger than the force you can muster by squeezing something between your thumb and index finger.

For University of California Irvine materials scientist David Kisailus, the diabolical ironclad beetle isn’t just a curiosity—it’s an inspiration. Kisailus and his colleagues are today publishing a paper in the journal Nature decoding at least part of the mystery of how the beetle can manage such feats of strength. Natural selection has invented an ingenious structure that keeps the insect from flattening, a structure that Kisailus has begun to mine for ways of engineering new super-strong materials. “We’re pretty stoked, because we think we can go to aircraft, automotive, sporting good industries with this kind of design,” says Kisailus.

So, to begin: What in the wide, wide world of insects is a beetle doing withstanding such forces? Morphologically speaking, it’s the beetle’s elytra—the two hard shells that you see a ladybug open when it unfurls its wings and takes flight—that are acting as its shield. But the diabolical ironclad beetle (henceforth known as the DIB) can’t fly. Over evolutionary time its elytra fused together and to the rest of its exoskeleton, creating a cohesive shell.

“Many large flightless beetles tend to have this characteristic (being really tough), particularly those that do not have strong chemical defences,” writes Matthew Van Dam, a beetle expert at the California Academy of Sciences, in an email to WIRED. (He wasn’t involved in this new work.) “Other studies have found that it is a good defense against predation. So the trait probably evolved as a defense against predators.”

We might first assume that the beetle is integrating some kind of mineral into its exoskeleton to give it extra strength. That wouldn’t be unprecedented: One deep-sea snail, for instance, builds a shell out of iron. But nope, the DIB is fully organic. “What we do know is that it’s simple organic materials—there’s no mineral, like you’d find in a shell that is really crush-resistant,” says Kisailus. “The beams that hold up your freeways are concrete for a reason: Ceramics are great under compression. And yet there’s no mineral in this. It’s all organic.”

So there has to be something special going on with the structure of the exoskeleton: The body must be constructed in such a way that absorbs the energy of a crushing blow, sort of like the way a skyscraper is built to sway slightly in an earthquake to avoid snapping in half. And indeed, Kisailus and his colleagues found two key evolutionary innovations that make the DIB so dang tough: lateral supports and a medial suture.

Plant communication

Plants communicate at a molecular level

Biologists identify a protein which recognizes Cuscuta as a parasite

Date:October 20, 2020Source:University of Erlangen-NurembergSummary:Biologists have discovered how tomato plants identify Cuscuta as a parasite. The plant has a protein in its cell walls that is identified as ‘foreign’ by a receptor in the tomato.Share:    FULL STORY

Working together with researchers from the University of Tübingen, the University of Tromsø, the UC Davis and the Sainsbury Laboratory in Norwich, biologists from FAU have discovered how tomato plants identify Cuscuta as a parasite. The plant has a protein in its cell walls that is identified as ‘foreign’ by a receptor in the tomato.

Cuscuta spp., also known as dodder, is a parasitic vine which grafts to the host plant using special suckers to obtain water, minerals and carbohydrates. The parasite also attacks and damages crops such as oilseed rape, sweetcorn, soy, flax or clover. Although the infection generally goes undetected by the host, some species of tomato actively defend themselves by forming wooden tissue which prevents the suckers from penetrating the plant. In earlier research, the biologists at FAU discovered that these tomatoes possess a special receptor, the Cuscuta receptor 1 (CuRe1), which triggers the defence mechanism. However, until now it was unclear how the receptor recognises the danger posed by the dodder.

The researchers have now succeeded in answering this question: the dodder possesses a specific marker in its cellular wall, a glycine-rich protein (GRP). Using its receptor CuRe1, the tomato is able to recognise the molecular pattern of the GRP and identify the dodder as a pathogen, and triggers the immune reaction as a result. The new findings concerning the molecular dialogue between the Cuscuta marker and the tomato receptor may help to increase the resistance of crop plants against parasitic plants.

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of Erlangen-NurembergNote: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. Volker Hegenauer, Peter Slaby, Max Körner, Julien-Alexander Bruckmüller, Ronja Burggraf, Isabell Albert, Bettina Kaiser, Birgit Löffelhardt, Irina Droste-Borel, Jan Sklenar, Frank L. H. Menke, Boris Maček, Aashish Ranjan, Neelima Sinha, Thorsten Nürnberger, Georg Felix, Kirsten Krause, Mark Stahl, Markus Albert. The tomato receptor CuRe1 senses a cell wall protein to identify Cuscuta as a pathogenNature Communications, 2020; 11 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-19147-4

Biopesticides offer hope for sustainable agriculture in Africa

Africa Science

October 6, 2020

By Joseph Checky Abuje

The International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) has developed new biopesticides that gives hope to sustainable agriculture in Africa.

The bio-pesticide products included 417 botanicals, 274 microbial and 271 microbial extracts, or fermentation products.

Of the products, 23, including Neem and Bacillus thuringiensis and sex pheromones and microbials that are registered within sub-Saharan Africa, are recommended for further consideration.

Through a partnership with Real IPM Ltd, a Kenya-based private sector company, two ICIPE biopesticides are being commercialised as Campaign (icipe69) and Achieve (icipe78).

The campaign has been registered in Ethiopia, Kenya, Ghana, South Africa, and Tanzania, where it is being used against mealybugs, thrips and fruit flies, in crops such as cucumber, mango, papaya, roses and tomatoes, among others. In particular, Campaign® is receiving growing attention across Africa for its efficacy as a drench treatment to kill soil-dwelling stages of fruit flies.

Based on its effectiveness and increasing demand by mango growers, the Centre is exploring methods to enhance the use of Campaign®. In field trials, a combination of Campaign® and DuduLure, a locally developed bait, resulted in the suppression of 94.3% of fruit flies in mango orchards.

In fields treated with the biopesticide, fruit infestation was 7.2%, compared to 54.9% in untreated orchards. These outcomes present one of the strongest possibilities for the complete elimination of chemical pesticides in fruit fly control in Africa.

With this success, players in the Biopesticide production are now calling on African governments to start supporting local production by subsidizing bio-pesticides reagents.

Already, several farmers in Africa have turned to bio-pesticides to fight the fall armyworm (FAW) that is ravaging food crops in the continent.

According to the study, by the Center for Agriculture and Bioscience International (CABI), conducted in 19 African countries early this year, biopesticides have proven to be effective in combating the deadly fall armyworm.

The research has further revealed that effective intervention of bio-pesticide is becoming popular with farmers in the FAW-infested countries.

The study looked at 50 bio-pesticide active ingredients that have been registered in 11 countries in FAW’s native range where farmers have been managing this pest for centuries and 19 in Africa where it is relatively new.

The study was conducted in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia. Tunisia was also included in the analyses as representing the Mediterranean countries that may be at risk of fall armyworm invasion.

Electrochemical weeding in agriculture

The SEWIA project (selective electrochemical weeding in agriculture) will develop new tools, enabling farmers to use modern methods for selective weeding in vegetable cultures, such as lettuce and other high-value specialty crops. The continuously decreasing number of herbicides approved in agriculture and horticulture and the limited applicability of suitable mechanical methods shows the need to develop economically viable alternatives for farmers, helping to protect a sustainable supply chain. 

Furthermore, a reduction in herbicide use is in line with consumer demand, environment policies, and socio-economic framework guidelines. As an example, the EU Farm to Fork Strategy aims at reducing the use of chemical pesticides by 50% by 2030 – only a short 10 years away.

The technologies will be used in the area between the plants and applied to individual weeds in a row. Therefore, it is particularly suitable for sensitive vegetable crops such as iceberg lettuce, cauliflower, and celery.

crop.zone and MASCOR bring together unique expertise such as AI machine vision, autonomous agriculture robotics, and a new mode of action for sustainable crop protection. The SEWIA project is sponsored by ‘Landwirtschaftliche Rentenbank’ and is set up for two years.

For more information: 
crop.zone GmbH
Pascalstr. 55
52076 Aachen

Publication date: Mon 5 Oct 2020

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Alien species to increase

Alien species to increase by 36% worldwide by 2050

Science Daily

Date:October 1, 2020Source:University College LondonSummary:The number of alien (non-native) species is expected to increase globally by 36% by the middle of this century, compared to 2005, finds new research.Share:    FULL STORY

The number of alien (non-native) species, particularly insects, arthropods and birds, is expected to increase globally by 36% by the middle of this century, compared to 2005, finds new research by an international team involving UCL.

Published in Global Change Biology, the study also predicts the arrival of around 2,500 new alien species in Europe, which translates to an increase of 64% for the continent over the 45-year period.

The research team led by the German Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre hope it should be possible to reduce this number with stricter biosecurity regulations.

Alien species are those that humans have moved around the world to places where they do not naturally occur. More than 35,000 such species had been recorded by 2005 (the date of the most recent comprehensive global catalogue). Some of these aliens can go on to become invasive, with damaging impacts to ecosystems and economies. Alien species are one of the main drivers of extinctions of animals and plants.advertisementINGREZZA® (valbenazine) – For INGREZZA Prescribers:HCPs: See why patients and caregivers are choosing INGREZZA as their treatment.www.ingrezzahcp.com

Co-author Professor Tim Blackburn (UCL Centre for Biodiversity & Environment Research and the Institute of Zoology, ZSL) said: “Our study predicts that alien species will continue to be added to ecosystems at high rates through the next few decades, which is concerning as this could contribute to harmful biodiversity change and extinction.

“But we are not helpless bystanders: with a concerted global effort to combat this, it should be possible to slow down or reverse this trend.”

For the study, the research team developed a mathematical model to calculate for the first time how many more aliens would be expected by 2050, based on estimated sizes of source pools (the species that could end up becoming invasive) and dynamics of historical invasions, under a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario that assumes a continuation of current trends.

The model predicts a 36% increase in the number of alien plant and animal species worldwide by 2050, compared to 2005 levels.

The study identifies high levels of variation between regions. The largest increase is expected in Europe, where the number of alien species will increase by 64% by the middle of the century. Additional alien hotspots are predicted to include temperate latitudes of Asia, North America, and South America. The lowest relative increase in alien species is expected in Australia.

Europe will also see the largest increase in absolute numbers of alien species, with around 2,500 new aliens predicted.advertisementINGREZZA® (valbenazine) – INGREZZA InsiderPsychiatrists: Sign up for INGREZZA Insider to receive updates and exclusive information. www.ingrezzahcp.com

Lead author Dr Hanno Seebens (Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Germany) said: “These will primarily include rather inconspicuous new arrivals such as insects, molluscs, and crustaceans. In contrast, there will be very few new alien mammal species such as the well-known raccoon.”

Co-author Dr Franz Essl (University of Vienna) added: “Increases are expected to be particularly large for insects and other arthropods, such as arachnids and crustaceans. We predict the number of aliens from these groups to increase in every region of the world by the middle of the century — by almost 120% in the temperate latitudes of Asia.”

The study also predicts that the rate of arrival of alien species will continue to increase, at least in some animal groups. Globally, by 2050, alien arthropod and bird species in particular will arrive faster than before, compared to the period 1960 — 2005. In Europe, the rate of new alien arrivals is expected to increase for all plant and animal groups except mammals.

Neither a reversal nor even a slowdown in the spread of alien species is in sight, as global trade and transport are expected to increase in the coming decades, allowing many species to infiltrate new habitats as stowaways.

Dr Seebens said: “We will not be able to entirely prevent the introduction of alien species, as this would mean severe restrictions in international trade.

“However, stricter regulations and their rigorous enforcement could greatly slow the flow of new species. The benefits of such measures have been shown in some parts of the world. Regulations are still comparatively lax in Europe, and so there is great potential here for new measures to curtail the arrival of new aliens.”

Story Source:

Materials provided by University College LondonNote: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. Hanno Seebens, Sven Bacher, Tim M. Blackburn, César Capinha, Wayne Dawson, Stefan Dullinger, Piero Genovesi, Philip E. Hulme, Mark Kleunen, Ingolf Kühn, Jonathan M. Jeschke, Bernd Lenzner, Andrew M. Liebhold, Zarah Pattison, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, Marten Winter, Franz Essl. Projecting the continental accumulation of alien species through to 2050Global Change Biology, 2020; DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15333

Cite This Page:

University College London. “Alien species to increase by 36% worldwide by 2050.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 1 October 2020. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201001090143.htm>.

Asymmetric Responses to Climate Change: Temperature Differentially Alters Herbivore Salivary Elicitor and Host Plant Responses to Herbivory


2020 GAP Report to launch next week

CIRED is pleased to share the announcement of the 2020 Global Agricultural Productivity Report (GAP Report) Launch on Monday, October 12 at 9:00 a.m. EDT. This year marks the 11th year of publication and second year at Virginia Tech. Titled “Agricultural Productivity in a Time of Pandemics,” the report explores the impact of disease and pest outbreaks on agricultural productivity, food security and nutrition, livelihoods, and environmental sustainability.

Jessica Agnew, CIRED’s Assistant Director of Research, Operations, & Program Management, has an article in the report, “Markets for Nutritious Foods – What role for the agricultural sector in market-based approaches to nutrition in Mozambique?”

We hope that you will join us and others around the world for this unique event. Along with the World Food Prize and Borlaug Dialogue, this year’s launch will be a virtual event. Please register at globalagriculturalproductivity.org.

The launch event will be available not only in English, but also in French, Hindi, Kiswahili, and Spanish. Each of these videos will broadcast at the same time (October 12, 9:00 a.m. EDT) and location (globalagriculturalproductivity.org). The video, in all languages, will also be available on-demand following the initial broadcast at the website. The GAP Report Executive Summary will also be available in English on the website at the time of the launch.

Current and Emerging Threats to Crops: Building the Knowledge Base

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EVENT DATE:Oct 21, 2020

TIME:09:30 AM to 11:00 AM (GMT -4)

LOCATION:United States

ONLINE:Online Event

REGISTER:Webinar Registration

HOST:USAID Bureau for Resilience and Food Security and Agrilinks


Please join USAID Bureau for Resilience and Food Security as we consider current efforts to combat threats and share a new research opportunity to further the practice.

Crop production is a mainstay for hundreds of millions of smallholder farmers across the tropics and subtropics, and is an essential element of food security and sustainable food systems. Farm families depending on crop production face a range of biotic challenges for which effective, safe and environmentally friendly management and control strategies remain elusive.

In some cases, existing threats to production pose recurrent problems, yet sound control methods are lacking. Increasingly, difficulties are also due to emergent threats encountered through invasive pathways bringing new pests, diseases, or weeds. Evolution of new pathogen races, insect biotypes, or other pests pose constitutive challenges to agriculture everywhere, and developing regions are no exception. Emergence of new threats has accelerated through international trade, human mobility, and a changing climate—leaving regions, countries and farmers vulnerable to impacts and often lacking the necessary scientific tools to develop scalable, research-generated solutions.

Our speakers will cover the following topics:

  • Rob Bertramand Angela Records: New Activity Design: Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Current and Emerging Threats to Crops
  • Muni Muniappan: Biological Control of an Invasive Insect, Papaya Mealybug and an Invasive Weed, Parthenium
  • B. M. Prasanna: MLN management in Africa: Intensive multi-disciplinary R4D and multi-institutional  efforts
  • Gael Pressoir: Saving Sorghum from Disapparation in Haiti

I am in the process of posting all of my publications, 1963 – present, on DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska – Lincoln. As of October 3, 2020, 39 publications have been posted on Digital Commons and by the time all publications have been posted the total will be 250+. The publications cover a range of entomological subjects and crops including, rice, sorghum and and soybeans. To access the dashboard of Elvis A. Heinrichs go to:


E. A. Heinrichs

IAPPS Secretary General


Farmers’ Weekly

Why wildflowers could cut aphid-spread viruses in potatoes

© Scottish Agronomy© Scottish Agronomy

Wildflowers grown in strips through potato crops could control disease-carrying aphids and may help growers faced with a dwindling number of insecticides.

Areas of wildflowers grown in the headlands and between tramlines of crops have been shown to attract the natural enemies of aphids – namely hoverflies, lacewings and ladybirds.

Scottish Agronomy, the crop consultant group, has been trialling this technique to help growers cope with the banning of some insecticides and increased aphid resistance to others.

The level of the main damaging potato virus Y, strain N (PVYn), is now at the highest level in seed potato crops for 20 years, highlighting the need for new methods of aphid control.

Eric Anderson, senior agronomist at the group, says both ware and, more importantly, seed potato producers are looking ahead to when fewer effective insecticides are likely to be available.

“The vision is to cut back on insecticides and growers recognise that some insecticides will not be available in the long term,” he says.

See also: Seed potato growers disadvantaged by fewer crop inspections

Chemical control 

Pyrethroid insecticides are currently under review by regulators, while some aphids are becoming resistant or have shown a shift in sensitivity to these products.

Meanwhile, systemics such as acetamiprid (Insyst) and flonicamid (Teppeki) have a limited number of applications allowed in seed potato crops, and restrictions could tighten further.

Even though Scottish seed potato crops only grow above ground for eight to 10 weeks, control of aphids is vital for the health of the seed and the viability of the whole industry.

Mr Anderson has trialled the technique of growing wild flower mixes on the headlands, either in 3m strips every tramline width or every other tramline width.

This creates corridors through the crop and more diversity, in a move away from a more monoculture system with its high reliance on chemical controls.

Wildflower mixes

Mr Anderson’s work has identified species such as cornflower, common vetch and yarrow as good homes for aphid enemies to be reared, and these wild flowers are at a low growing height to fit in with the potato crops.

He is still refining which species should be sown and sowing dates, and hopes this may allow growers to cut back on their insecticide use in the future.

The potential virus problem in potatoes is further exacerbated by the withdrawal of diquat (Reglone) as a desiccant. This means that crop haulm stays greener for longer, so is more at risk from regrowth and late season aphid-spread viruses.

Research work in Switzerland, conducted by Matthias Tschumi, found wildflower strips to be highly effective in attracting the enemies of aphids and in decreasing aphid densities.

Of the three natural enemies, hoverflies showed the biggest increase in numbers in the strips compared with surrounding potatoes, while lacewings and ladybirds were also up sharply.Ladybird on potato leaf

© Scottish Agronomy

Lag period

Mr Anderson points out that there can be a lag period until natural enemies have time to build up their numbers. Therefore, there is potential for integrated pest management (IPM) using both traditional and modern tools to control aphids.

This approach is being investigated at the AHDB seed potato farm at Morphie, north of Montrose, and it is hoped the wider adoption of IPM will improve PVYn control while reducing insecticide use.

The virus health of Scottish seed potatoes is a unique selling point in Britain and around the world. However, the amount of virus in crops increased significantly during both 2019 and 2020, with the highest level of mosaics recorded in more than 20 years.

The main virus of concern is PVY and the main strain is now is PVYn, with peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae) considered the most efficient vector of the virus. The virus can cause significant direct yield losses, tuber blemishes and cracking. Potato leaf roll virus has also increased, albeit from a very low base.